Carbohydrates 1: simple sugars

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 12-02-14 19:02
How much do carbohydrates make up of the organic matter of a cell?
10%
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What are carbohydrates' functions in organisms? (3)
Energy source and store, and structure.
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What do some carbohydrates form part of?
Larger molecules.
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What elements do carbohydrates contain?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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What does the term carbohydrate mean, and why?
It means 'hydrated carbon' because the elements are found in the proportions Cn(H20)n.
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Define carbohydrates.
They make up a group of molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio Cn(H20)n.
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What are the simplest carbohydrates called?
Monosaccharides.
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What are monosaccharides?
The monomers of carbohydrate.
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How are all larger carbohydrates made?
By joining monosaccharides together.
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How many carbons atoms do the different monosaccharides contain?
Between 3 and 6.
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What are 3-carbon monosaccharides known as?
Triose sugars.
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What are 5-carbon monosaccharides known as?
Pentose sugars.
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What are 6-carbon monosaccharides known as?
Hexose sugars.
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Which are the most common monosaccharides?
Hexose sugars.
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Give 2 examples of hexose sugars.
Glucose and fructose.
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What do glucose and fructose contain apart from 6 carbons?
12 hydrogens and 6 oxygens.
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How are hexose sugars written?
C6H12O6.
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What structures do pentoses and hexoses tend to have?
Ring structures.
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What 2 ways can glucose be drawn?
As a chain or ring structure.
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What are the 2 different ways the ring structure of glucose forms?
Where the H and OH at carbon 1 may be above or below the plane of the ring.
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In an alpha glucose, where is the OH?
Below the plane.
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In a beta glucose, where is the OH?
Above the plane.
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What does the difference of structure of the 2 glucose molecules lead to?
Some different properties.
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What reaction joins 2 monosaccharides, and what does this form and eliminate (3)?
A condensation reaction, forming a disaccharide molecule, a new covalent bond called a glycosidic bond, and water is eliminated.
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What happens in the hydrolysis of a disaccharide?
A water molecule is used to break the glycosidic bond.
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What involves the making and breaking of glycosidic bonds?
Building the polysaccharides starch, glycogen and cellulose, and the breaking down of larger molecules.
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Are disaccharides still sugars?
Yes.
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What are the 2 products of a condensation reaction?
A larger molecule as a result of bonding 2 smaller molecules and a water molecule.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are carbohydrates' functions in organisms? (3)

Back

Energy source and store, and structure.

Card 3

Front

What do some carbohydrates form part of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What elements do carbohydrates contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the term carbohydrate mean, and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

ellexo

fab!

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