Carbohydrates - Sugars

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 23-03-16 14:18
What is the literal translation of carbohydrate?
"hydrated carbon"
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For every carbon atom in a carbohydrate, how many hydrogen and oxygen atoms are there?
1 carbon : 2 hydrogens : 1 oxygen
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What are the three functions of carbohydrates?
Act as a source of energy, act as a store of energy and as structural units.
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Give an example for each of the three functions of carbohydrates.
source: glucose, store: glycogen and starch, structural units: cellulose in plants and chitin in insects.
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What are the three main groups of carbohydrate?
Monosaccharride, Disaccharide, Polysaccharide.
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What suffix is given to most common types of monosaccharide and disaccharide?
-ose (maltose, glucose etc.)
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Monosaccharides are most important in living things as what?
A source of energy.
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Why rae they so suited to this role?
The large number of carbon-hydrogen bonds.
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What are the three features of a sugar?
Sweet, soluble in water and insoluble in non-polar solvents.
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Which forms can monosaccharides exist in?
Straight chains or in a ring or cyclic form.
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In solutions, triose and tetrose sugars exist as?
Straight chains.
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Pentose and hexose sugars are more likely to be found in?
Ring or cyclic form.
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What is an isomer?
Molecules with the same formula but whose atoms are arranged differently in space.
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In both forms, glucose can exist as?
An isomer.
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What are the two isomers of glucose?
Alpha-glucose and beta-glucose.
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Disaccharides share what properties with monosaccharides?
They are sweet and soluble.
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Name the three most common disaccharides.
Maltose, lactose and sucrose.
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Which of the three disaccharides are non-reducing?
Maltose and lactose.
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Which of the three disaccharides are reducing?
Sucrose.
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Which two monosacharrides create maltose?
an alpha-glucose and an alpha-glucose
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Which two monosaccharides create sucrose?
alpha-glucose and fructose.
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Which two monosaccharides create lactose?
beta-glucose and alpha-glucose.
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What do two beta-glucose molecules create?
cellobiose.
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What is the bond between two monosaccharides called?
a glycosidic bond.
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How is a glycosidic bond formed?
Through a condensation reaction.
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How are disaccharides broken into monosaccharides?
Through a hydrolysis reaction.
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What is the molecular formula of alpha-glucose?
C6H12O6
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What is the molecular formula of beta-glucose?
C6H1206
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What is the molecular formula of ribose?
C5H10O5
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What is the molecular formula of deoxyribose?
C5H10O4
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What is the role of alpha-glucose in the body?
Energy source, component of starch and glycogen.
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What is the role of beta-glucose in the body?
Energy source, component of cellulose which provides structural support in plant cell walls.
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What is the role of ribose in the body?
Component of RNA and ATP
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What is the role of deoxyribose in the body?
Component of DNA.
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What is the molecular formula for maltose?
C12H24O12
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

For every carbon atom in a carbohydrate, how many hydrogen and oxygen atoms are there?

Back

1 carbon : 2 hydrogens : 1 oxygen

Card 3

Front

What are the three functions of carbohydrates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example for each of the three functions of carbohydrates.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the three main groups of carbohydrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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