Carbohydrates - Polysaccharides as Structural Units

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 24-03-16 10:04
Where is cellulose found?
In plants, forming cell walls.
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True or False: "Cellulose is a heteropolysaccharide"?
False. Cellulose is a homopolysaccharide.
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What type of molecule is cellulose made of?
Beta-glucose.
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How many monosaccharides molecules form a cellulose polysaccharide?
Up to 15,000 beta-glucose molecules.
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How common is cellulose?
Cellulose is the most common polysaccharide in the world.
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What shape does cellulose form?
It is in straight chains that lie side by side.
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This structure is the result of what?
Bonding.
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What is different about the Hydrogen and Hydroxyl groups in cellulose?
They are inverted because cellulose is made from beta-glucose.
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What effect do the inverted hydrogen and hydroxyl groups have on cellulose's structure?
It means in order for condensation to bond the two molecules together, every other beta-glucose molecule must be rotates 180 degrees. This and the 1-4 glycosidic bond prevents the molecule from spiralling.
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What gives the chain additional strength?
Hydrogen bonds between the rotated beta-glucose molecules.
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Hydrogen bonds also form where?
Between the chains, which gives the whole structure additional strength.
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How can hydrogen bonds form between chains in cellulose?
Because the hydroxyl group on carbon 2 sticks out.
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How are mirofibrils formed?
When 60 or 70 cellulose chains are joined by hydrogen bonds.
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How big are microfibrils?
10-30nm in diameter.
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What do macrofibrils consist of?
Around 400 microfibrils.
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How are plant cell walls formed?
The macrofibrils are embedded in pectins.
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How do macrofibrils give the cell wall extra strength?
By running in all directions, criss-crossing the wall.
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Microfibrils and macrofibrils have very high what?
Tensile strength, because of the glycosidic bonds, but also because of the hydrogen bonds between chains.
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Why is it difficult to digest cellulose?
The glycosidic bonds between molecules are hard to break.
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Why is it important that cellulose is so strong?
Because plants do not have a skeleton, and so cellulose is relied on to support the plant.
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Why is the cell wall considered fully permeable?
Because there is space for water and mineral ions to pass their way in and out of the cell.
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How are turgid cells protected?
Because of the high tensile strength, turgid cells do not burst. They are instead used to further support the plant.
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Which are the only animals to use cellulose as food?
Cows and other ruminants e.g. sheep, camels, giraffes etc. Microorganisms in their digestive system produce cellulase.
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How much of cotton is made of cellulose?
90%
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Which common domestic item is also derived from cellulose?
Cellophane.
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What do bacterial cell walls consist of?
Peptidoglycan, made of long polysaccharide chains that lie in parallel that are cross-linked by short peptide chains.
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What are insect and crustacean cell walls made from?
Chitin.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

True or False: "Cellulose is a heteropolysaccharide"?

Back

False. Cellulose is a homopolysaccharide.

Card 3

Front

What type of molecule is cellulose made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many monosaccharides molecules form a cellulose polysaccharide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How common is cellulose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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