Carbohydrates - Polysaccharides

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  • Created by: shyde7
  • Created on: 24-03-16 09:15
Is a polysachharide a monomer or a polymer?
A polymer, of monosaccharides.
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How many monosaccharides form a polysaccharide?
Hundreds or thousands.
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What is a homopolysaccharide?
a polysaccharide consisting of just one type of monosaccharide
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What is a heteropolysaccharide?
A polysaccharide consisting of more than one type of polysaccharide.
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How can we tell glucose is a source of energy?
Because it is a reactant of respiration.
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What is created when you join many glucose molecules together?
A store of energy.
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How do plants store energy?
As starch in chloroplasts and membrane-bound starch grains
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How do animals store energy?
As glycogen in cells of the muscle and liver.
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Why is it a good thing that starch and glycogen are compact?
Many dense granules can be stored within the cell.
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Glucose molecules are held in which form in polysaccharides?
Chains.
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Why is this a good thing?
Because they can easily be 'snipped off' by hydrolysis when needed for respiration
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True or False: "Hydrolysis reactions are always catalysed by enzymes."
True.
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Give 2 advantages of branched chains:
More compact and offer the opportunity for lots of glucose molecules to be 'snipped off' at once.
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Give an example of an unbranched chain.
Amylose
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Give an example of a branched chain.
Amylopectin or Glycogen.
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What is the enzyme responsible for hydrolysing 1-4 linkages?
Amylase.
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What is the enzyme responsible for hydrolysing 1-6 linkages?
Glucosidase
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Are polysaccharides more or less soluble than monosaccharides?
Less
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Why are polysaccharides less soluble than monosachharides?
Because of their size, and also because all areas that could hydrogen bond with water are hidden inside the molecule.
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What shape does the amylose molecule sometimes form and why does this prevent it from being soluble?
A double helix and because this presents a hydrophobic external surface
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Where is amylose found?
In plants.
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What type of bonds does amylose have?
A 1-4 glycosidic bond (A glycosidic bond between carbons 1 and 4)
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Where is amylopectin found?
In plants.
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What type of bonds does amylopectin have?
Like amylose, it has 1-4 glycosidic bonds, but also 1-6 glycosidic bonds where chains are attached.
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Where is glycogen found?
In animals.
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What type of bonds does glycogen have?
Like amylose, it has 1-4 glycosidic bonds, but also 1-6 glycosidic bonds where chains are attached.
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What are amylose, amylopectin and glycogen composed of?
A long chain of alpha-glucose molecules.
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What shape does amylose form?
A spiral shape, with hydrogen bonds holding the spiral in place.
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What is situated on the inside of the coil of amylose?
Hydroxyl groups attached to carbon 2.
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Why are hydroxyl groups on the inside of the coil of amylose a good thing?
It makes the molecule less soluble and allows hydrogen bonds to form and maintain the molecule structure.
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What is the main difference between the structure of amylopectin and amylose?
Amylopectin has branches emerging from the spiral.
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Why does glycogen have less tendency to coil?
Because glycogen has is smaller than amylopectin or amylose.
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How does glucose's structure affect its shape?
The branches are smaller so the molecule is more compact.
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The core of an glycogen or amylopectin molecule is resistant to what?
Hydrolysis of enzymes.
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What is this resistance called?
A limit dextrin.
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What is a limit dextrin a major component of?
Mucus.
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How much of the liver can be glycogen?
7%
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many monosaccharides form a polysaccharide?

Back

Hundreds or thousands.

Card 3

Front

What is a homopolysaccharide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a heteropolysaccharide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can we tell glucose is a source of energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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