Carbohydrates & Monosaccharides

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What forms can carbohydrates be found in?
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides or Polysaccharides
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What determines the monosaccharide to be made up of alpha or beta glucose?
The orientation of the -OH group on carbon 1.
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What are the key features of monosaccharides?
Sweet tasting; soluble; atoms form a ring instead of a straight chain.
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What is the test for reducing sugars?
Benedict's test
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What is a reducing sugar?
A sugar that can donate electrons or reduce another chemical (all monoschaarides are reducing sugars).
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How is Benedict's test carried out?
Add 2cm3 offood sample into test tube --> add equal volume of benedict's reagent --> heat in boiling water bath for 5 min --> red brick precipitate of copper (i) oxide will form if reducing sugar is present.
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What is a condensation reaction?
When a glycosidic bond is formed by joining 2 monosaccharides together and removing a molecule of water.
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What is hydrolysis?
Adding a molecule of water to break the glycosidic bond in a disaccharide, releasing the 2 monosaccharides.
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What monosaccharides is maltose made up of?
Glucose + Glucose
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What monosaccharides is sucrose made up of?
Glucose + Fructose
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What monosaccharides is lactose made up of?
Glucose + Galactose
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How is benedicts test carried out for non reducing sugars?
Add 2cm3 of food sample and the same amount of HCL into a test tube. Place in water bath for 5 min to hydrolyse the solution. Add sodium hydrogencarbonate. Test with benedict's reagent. Solution will turn orange/brown.
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How is the test for starch carried out?
2cm3 of sample into test tube. Add 2 drops of iodine solution. Shake. Starch will turn the solution black/blue.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What determines the monosaccharide to be made up of alpha or beta glucose?

Back

The orientation of the -OH group on carbon 1.

Card 3

Front

What are the key features of monosaccharides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the test for reducing sugars?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a reducing sugar?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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