Carbohydrates and Lipids

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What three elements do all carbohydrates contain?
All carbohydrates contain: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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Name three types of carbohydrates.
Three types of carbohydrates are: sugars, starch and cellulose.
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What two groups are sugars divided into?
MONOSACCHARIDES and DISACCHARIDES.
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What are MONOSACCHARIDES?
MONOSACCHARIDES are single units that all carbohydrates are built from. Examples of MONOSACCHARIDES are fructose and glucose. Glucose has two forms, alpha α and beta β.
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What are DISACCHARIDES?
DISACCHARIDES are the product of two MONOSACCHARIDES joining together in a chemical reaction. The other product formed in these reactions (condensation reactions) is a molecule of water.
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Give two examples of the word equations for condensation reactions.
Glucose + Glucose → Maltose (DISACCHARIDE) + Water Glucose + Fructose → Sucrose (DISACCHARIDE) + Water
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What are POLYSACCHARIDES?
POLYSACCHARIDES (polymers) are large molecules which consist of many small MONOSACCHARIDES.
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What is starch made from?
Starch is made from two different POLYSACCHARIDES, AMYLOSE and AMYLOPECTIN, which are both polymers of glucose. The insoluble and compact nature of starch makes it ideal for storing glucose, and it is only found in plant cells.
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How is cellulose different to starch?
Cellulose is different to starch, as although it is also a polymer of glucose, it has different bonding between the units of glucose. This results in the molecules being long and straight.
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What do several cellulose molecules form?
Several cellulose molecules can form MICROFIBRILS when they are lying side by side. Cellulose is only found in plants, and the MICROFIBRILS strengthen the cell wall. The molecules are joined using weak hydrogen bonds.
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What are LIPIDS?
LIPIDS are oils and fats which are found in both animals and plants. The LIPIDS in animals and plants are made up from TRIGLYCERIDES, which consist of one molecule of glycerol, with three fatty acids bonded to it.
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What is a fatty acid?
A fatty acid is a long chain of bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms, with an acid group (-COOH) at the end.
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What does it mean to be saturated, unsaturated or polyunsaturated?
If the fatty acid only has single bonds, then it is saturated. If there is one or more double bond, it is unsaturated. If it has many double bonds, it is polyunsaturated.
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What are PHOSPHOLIPIDS?
PHOSPHOLIPIDS are the same as TRIGLYCERIDES, apart from the fact that rather than having three fatty acid molecules attached, there are two and a phosphate group. Cell membranes are double layers of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name three types of carbohydrates.

Back

Three types of carbohydrates are: sugars, starch and cellulose.

Card 3

Front

What two groups are sugars divided into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are MONOSACCHARIDES?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are DISACCHARIDES?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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