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What is the basic formula for carbohydrates
C H2 O
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What two categories can carbohydrates be split into?
Sugar (simple) and non sugars (complex)
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Which two categories can sugar be split into?
Disaccharides and monosaccharides
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What are the two monosaccharides
Glucose and fructose
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What are the three disaccharides
Lactose, Maltose and Sucrose
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Non sugars can be divided into two categories?
simple polysaccharides and complex polysaccharides
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Name the three simple polysaccharides
Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen
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Two complex polysaccharides
Pectin and gums
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How many carbon atoms are in monosaccharides
Between 2 and 7 but most commonly foods have 6 and are called Hexoses and- C6H12O6
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What are the two types of glucose?
Alpha and Beta
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What is the structure of glucose
Ring like shape
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What is the difference between the position of the hydroxyl group in alpha and beta glucose
Alpha OH is at the bottom of the structure and beta OH is at the top of the structure.
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What solution can break down glucose
fehling solution
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What foods contain large amounts of glucose
sweet fruit and sweet vegetables
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When is galactose formed
Formed during digestion when lactose is broken down.
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How much sweeter is fructose then glucose
one and half times
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What is an invert sugar
Mix of fructose and sucrose
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Which food does invert sugar occur naturally
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Definition of disaccharide
two monosaccharides joined together.
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What is the reaction occurs when two monosaccharides join together
Condensation reaction- water is eliminated
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What two monosaccharides join together to form maltose
Two glucose units joined together
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When the two glucose units joined together the remaining O2 form a bridge. What is this called
Glycosidic link
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Which enzyme breaks down maltose?
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Which two monosaccharides produce sucrose
Fructose and glucose
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Which two monosaccharides produce lactose
galactose and glucose
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Lactose is only found in one food product
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Explain how sugar causes tooth decay
Sugar feed the bacteria. Bacteria forms plaque, some bacteria form a glue which helps them stick to tooth surface which makes it harder to remove. Plaque produces acid which dissolves tooth anamel
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Defenition starch
White non crystallized powder which doesn't dissolve in water.
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Simple polysaccharide
These are one type of monosaccharide joined together. (C6 H10 05)n
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What are the two types of starch
amylase and amlopectin
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How many glucose units are in amylase and how are they joined
50-500 glucose units joined together in a straight chain.
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Due to the bond angles between the glucose units what shape is formed?
Helix 6 glucose units per turn of the spiral
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Starch- How many glycosidic links to make the chain
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Amlopectin is a more complex structure than amylase. Describe its structure
Tree like appearance with highly branched chains and containing up to two million glucose units.
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Which bit of plants is cellulose found in
Found in the cell walls
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What is cellulose an important source of in the diet
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What is NSP
non starch polysaccharide
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Why is it good for the body
Necessary for the efficient passing of food through the alimentary canal and regulate emptying of the bowels
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what is starch broken down by
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What is a description of a complex polysaccharide
Long chains of different monosaccharides joined together.
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Where is pectin found
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What is Pectins use in cooking
It is a gelling agent
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What two categories can carbohydrates be split into?


Sugar (simple) and non sugars (complex)

Card 3


Which two categories can sugar be split into?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the two monosaccharides


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the three disaccharides


Preview of the front of card 5
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