Fats

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Lipids are esters of what?
Fatty acids and glycerol
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How many different fatty acids are there?
More than 40
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What is the general form of fatty acid?
RCOOH 1 carbon 2 oxygen and 1 hydogen
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What does the R represent in the fatty acid formula?
Represents the different hydro carbon chains.
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Fatty acids are organic compounds of what?
Carboxylic groups
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Fatty acids are split into two groups?
Saturated and unsaturated.
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What is unsaturated fatty acid not saturated with?
Hydrogen
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How many bonds does an unsaturated fatty acid have?
1 or more double bonds
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What is a mono unsaturated fatty acid?
Only has one double boond
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If a fatty acid has more than one double bond what is it called
Polyunsaturated
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Describe what a saturated fatty acid is?
When the hydro carbon chain is saturated with hydrogen
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What temperature do unsaturated fats melt at? what does that mean
Saturated fats melt below room temperature therefore are liquids.
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Why are saturated fats hard?
Higher melting point so are a solid for longer.
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How can a unsaturated fat become saturated?
Hydrogenisation
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Hydrogenation mean.
Hydrogen is added over hydro carbon bond as well as nickel as a catalyst. Unsaturated fat becomes a solid e.g. margarine.
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What is a Trans Fat?
Tran Fat are when 2 hydrogen atoms are on geometrically opposite sides of a hydrogen bond. H1-C=C-H1
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What are the health implications of Trans fats?
Increases the LDL but lowers the HDL making them worse than saturated fats.
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What is a saturated fatty acid?
Maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached to every carbon atom and therefore saturated with hydrogen.
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What saturated fat are in milk and butter?
Butyric
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What saturated fat is in animal fats?
Palmitice
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Which saturated fat are in Beef Fat?
Stearic
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Cooking oils contain which mono unsaturated acid?
Oeliac
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Vegetable and fish oils which contain which two fatty acids?
Linoleic and Linolenic
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What is an essential fatty acid?
Fatty acids that your body can't produce
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If Glycerol reacts with two fatty acids what do you get?
Dylyeride
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If Glycerol reacts with 3 fatty acids what do you get?
Triglyceride
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All natural fats are mixed triglyceride?
They contain different fatty acids.
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What do we mean by the word lipid
Collective name for fats, oils, waxes and steroids (fat like molecules)
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What is melting point mean?
Point at which the fat melts from a solid to a liquid. Because triglyercide has different mixtures of fatty acids it will melt over a range of temperatures.
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What is the temperature when melting occurs known as?
Slip point
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What is the smoke point?
As fats decompose through heat they produce a blue haze and smoke. Occurs at 200 degrees approximately
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What is Flash point?
When the vapours from the oil sets fire
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What does Placsdcity mean?
Because most fats are mixed triglyceride some of the fatty acids will remain solid while others will become more melted making the fat solid but spreadable.
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What does the term shortening mean?
Fat increases the crumbly texture of food e.g. short crust pastry.
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What effect does fat have on gluten?
The fat coats the gluten therefore preventing the elasticity to form.
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What is a difference between a cis and trans fatty acid?
Trans fatty acids, hydrogen atoms are geometrically opposite sides while a CIS fatty acid is when hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond.
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Rancidity mean
Spoilage of fat an oil with an unpleasant smell and taste.
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Oxidative rancidity
Oxygen reacts with unsaturated triglycerides. The oxygen molecules join over double bonds to form aldehydes and ketones
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What three things accelerate oxidative rancidity
Heat, light and traces of metal.
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What is hydrolytic rancidity?
Enzymes called lipase hydrolyses fats breaking them down into glycerol and fatty acids. Fat+ water= glycerol + fatty acids.
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5 Ways to stop rancidity?
Store fats in fridge, Keep away from light, Keep away from metals, Keep away from oxygen, salt will speed up rancidity.
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2 ways to slow down rancidity?
Antioxidants and sugar.
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What is cholesterol?
Waxy white substance found partically in animal fats which block arteries and can cause heart disease.
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What is cholesterol carried around the body by?
By a specific protein which combines with the lipid to form lipoproteins.
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What is HDL?
High density lipoproteins.
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What does HDL do?
Transports the cholesterol to the liver from where was excess and disposed of by the liver.
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What does LDL and why are they bad for us?
Low density lipoproteins and leads to deposits in the arteries of plaque and cause the arteries to narrow.
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What are the two main types of essential fatty acids?
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and Longer chain fatty acids (EPA and DHA)
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What are EFA needed for?
Maintenance of cell membrane and to produce eicosanoids which are a hormone like substance involved in clotting blood.
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Three main uses of fat in food preparation?
Frying, Shortening and Aeration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many different fatty acids are there?

Back

More than 40

Card 3

Front

What is the general form of fatty acid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the R represent in the fatty acid formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Fatty acids are organic compounds of what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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