Carbohydrates

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What are carbohydrates made from?
Monosaccharides
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What is a polymer?
A molecule made up of many monomers bonded togetger
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What is glucose?
A monoosaccharide with 6 carbon atoms (hexose). There are 2 forms of glucose, alpha and beta
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What is ribose?
A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms (pentose)
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What are the three elements that make up carbohydrates?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
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What are monosaccharides joined together by
Glycosidic bonds
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What is a condensation reaction
A hydrgen atom on one monosaccharide bonds to a hydroxyl group on the other, releasing a molecule of water
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What is the reverse of this reaction?
Hydrolysis
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How is a disaccharide formed?
When two monosaccharides join together
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How is a polysaccharide formed?
When more than two monosaccharides join together
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What are the 3 polysaccharides you have to know
Starch, glycogen, cellulose
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What does starch do?
The main energy storage material in plants
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What is starch made up of?
Amylose and Amylopectin
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What is amylose?
Long unranched chain of alpha glucose. Coiled structure, compact which means its good for storage
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What is amylopectin?
Long branched chain of alpha glucose. It side branches allows the enzymes to breakdown the molecules to get to the glycosidic bonds easily.
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What are the features of starch?
Insoluble in water, which means that it is good for storage.
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What does glycogen do?
Main energy storage material in animals
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What is the structure of glycogen?
Similar to Amylopectin, but with more side branches so it has quicker energy release
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What is cellulose made up of?
Long unbranched chains of beta glucose
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Structure of cellulose
When these bond, they form straight cellulose chains. These link by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils.
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Card 2

Front

What is a polymer?

Back

A molecule made up of many monomers bonded togetger

Card 3

Front

What is glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is ribose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the three elements that make up carbohydrates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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