Carbohydrates (Sugars)

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Name a Monosaccharide.
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
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What is the two types of glucose?
Alpha-glucose and Beta-glucose
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What is the structural difference between A-glucose and B-glucose?
In a-glucose, the hydroxyl group on the carbon 1 is aligned with the hydroxyl group on the carbon 4. Whereas in the b-glucose, the hydroxyl group on the carbon 1 is flipped compared to the a-glucose.
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Name a Disaccharide.
Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
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Name the bonds that holds the monosaccharides together to form a disaccharide
Glycosidic bonds (covalent bond)
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Name the reaction that breaks bonds
Hydrolysis
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Name the reaction that makes the bonds
Condensation reaction
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Name a polysaccharide.
Starch (Amylose or amylopectin form), Glycogen, Cellulose
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What is the difference between the structure of glycogen and cellulose?
Glycogen forms a branched structure because it is made from a-glucose, making it insoluble, branched and compact. Cellulose is made from b-glucose (has to alternate to form bonds) making it fibrous, strong and insoluble.
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What is the test for reducing sugars?
1) Prepare sample, 2) add benedict reagent, 3) Heat gently in boiling water bath for 5 min
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Positive result for reducing sugars
Blue to brick red (green-yellow in middle)
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Test for non-reducing sugars
Boil with HCl
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Test for starch
1) prepare sample, 2) add iodine dissolved with potassium iodide solution
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Positive result for starch
Yellow-brown to purple-black
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the two types of glucose?

Back

Alpha-glucose and Beta-glucose

Card 3

Front

What is the structural difference between A-glucose and B-glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name a Disaccharide.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the bonds that holds the monosaccharides together to form a disaccharide

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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