C&D definitions

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  • Created by: Alex
  • Created on: 13-06-14 16:55
Altruistic suicide
Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where people see their own happiness as unimportant
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Anomic suicide
Durkheim's term for suiciide in societies where rapid change is occurring
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Breakdown of social expectations & behaviour; normlessness
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Belief that humans have the right to exploit the environment for their own benefit
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Bedroom culture
Used by McRobbie & Garber: describes the way in which girls are more likely than boys to socialise with friends in the home, rather than in the streets or other public places
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Ruling class in capitalist society
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British Crime Survey (BCS)
Annual victimisation survey carried out by the Home Office
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Canteen Culture
Refers to the occupational culture developed by the police
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Industrial society based on private ownership of property and businesses
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Questionnaire survey carried out by the government every 10th year on the whole population
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Chivalry thesis
Suggests that the CJS may treat women more leniently than men
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Collateral damage
Accidental & unintended damage
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Comparitive method
Involves comparing societies to find out key differences that might explain different social phenomena
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Compensatory education
Diverting more educational funding to deprived areas
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General agreement
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Conspicuous consumption
Idea that identity and status are dependent on material things such as designer labels and jewellery
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Corporate crime
Crimes committed by companies against employees or the public
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Tending to produce crime/criminality
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Cultural meanings
The ways in which things are interpreted differently in different societies
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Cultural transmission
Values are passed on from one generation to the next
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Cyber crime
Illegal acts using the internet
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Dark figure
Amount of unknown crime that is never recorded
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Decline of forests caused by humans using the land & resources for other purposes
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Representing a particular group as evil
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Losing sensitivity to, for example, violence in the media
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Deviancy amplification
When the action of the rule enforcers or media in response to deviance brings about an increase in the deviance
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Deviant career
The various stages a person passes through on their way to being seen as, and seeing themselves as, deviant
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Domain assumptions
A worldview which is the result of socialisation into a particular culture
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Eco-centric view
Belief that damage to the environment ultimately damages the human race
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Relationship between different elements of an environment
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Used by Lyng: refers to activities of young males which provide them with thrills derived from the possibility of harm
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Egoistic suicide
Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where people regard their individual happiness as very important
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False class consciousness
Marxism: the lack of awareness of the WC being exploited
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Fatalistic suicide
Durkheim's term for suicide resulting from over-regulation of the individual
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Focal concerns
Miller: key values
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Folk devils
Individuals or groups associated with moral panics who are seen as troublemakers by the media
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Process whereby national boundaries become less important
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Going native
Researchers becoming too close to research participants and losing objectivity
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Green crimes
Illegal acts that damage the environment
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The dominant form of something
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Extreme versions of typical male behaviour
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Hypothetico-deductive model
Research process associated with the physical sciences, used by positivists in sociology
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Ideological state apparatuses
Althusser (Neo-Marxist): institutions that control the population through manipulating valuese (e.g. media)
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Set of ideas and beliefs that justify actions
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Illegitimate opportunity structures
Alternative, illegal ways of life, to which certain groups in society have access
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Way in which capitalism quickly commercialises aspects of youth cultural style, stripping them of ideological significance so they become just another consumer item
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The pursuit of self-interest
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Used by Marxists: the way a society produces wealth
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Institutional racism
Racism that is built into the normal practises of an organisation
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Used by Marxists: the way a society produces wealth
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Institutional racism
Racism that is built into the normal practises of an organisation
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Juvenile delinquency
Crimes committed by people under 18
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Left realism
Criminological theory. Argues crime is a real problem affecting working communities & is crerated principally by the inequalities in society, which capitalism causes. Argues we should work within capitalism to improve people's lives
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Macro theory
Way of looking at society, which concentrates on how social structure determines individual behaviour
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Manufactured risks
Threats to the ecosystem that result from the massive demand for consumer goods & the technology that underpins it
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Master status
When people are looked at by others solely on the basis of one type of act (good or bad) that they have committed, ignoring all other aspects of that person
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Focusing on possessions & wealth
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Used by postmodernists: structural theories - 'big stories'
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Micro theories
Way of looking at society, focusing on how individuals interpret the social world
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Moral entrepreneur
Person who tries to create or enforce a rule
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Moral panic
Outrage stirred up by the media about a particular group or issue
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Moral regulation
The way societies control their members' values & beliefs
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News values
Set of criteria used by the media to determine which events are newsworthy
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Night-time economy
Used by Hobbs: refers to the way a leisure industry has developed at night in certain parts of inner-cities, providing the location of many offences
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Open sciences
Sciences concerned with the study of things we cannot see or sense directly
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Used by Kuhn: a framework of thought, which provides the way we approach and understand an issue
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Patronising aapproach that removes people's freedom to choose
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Pilot study
Small preliminary study aiming to test the methodology before the full study is undertaken
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Used by Marxists: describes how in capitalist society, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer
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Proposing remedies and solutions
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Primary deviance
The act of breaking a rule
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Trusting relationship between researcher and respondent
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Repeat offending
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Relative deprivation
How deprived someone feels in relation to others, or compared with their own expectations
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Reserve army of labour
Used by Marxists: describes groups that are moved in and out of work by the capitalist class as it suits them (e.g. women in the war, old people)
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Right realism
Perspective on crime that sees crime as an inevitable result of people's selfish, individualistic and greedy nature. See: Wilson, zero tolerance
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Risk consciousness
Used by Beck: anxieties caused by global crimes
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Secondary deviance
Response to rule-breaking, which usually has greater social consequences than initial rule-breaking
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Situational Crime Prevention (SCP)
Approach to crime that ignores motivation for offending & concentrates on making it more difficult to commit crime
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Social action theory
Another name for symbolic interactionism; focus on how society is built up from people interacting with one another
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Social democratic perspective
Favours investment in public services & a redistribution of wealth from the rich to the poor
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Social disorganisation
Where people feel little sense of community or of responsibility for one another
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Social fact
Used by Durkheim: claims that certain objective 'facts' exist in society that are not influenced by individuals
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Social integration
Extent to which people feel they 'belong' to a society or social group
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Status frustration
Used by Cohen: occurs when young men feel they are looked down upon by society
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Stop and search
Police have powers to stop & search those they 'reasonably' think may be about to commit, or have committed, a crime
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Used by Merton: describes a lack of balance and adjustment in society
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Distinctive sets of values that provide an alternative to those of mainstream culture
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Used by Marxists: describes the parts of society that are responsible for socialisation & the spreading of ideology
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Surplus values
Used by Marxists: describes the profits extracted by capitalists from the labour of the proletariat
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Symbolic interaction
The ways in which people act by interpreting things like other people's language and non-verbal communication
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Associating the dress, hairstyles and music of a youth culture with trouble and violence
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Techniques of neutralisation
Justifications for our deviant actions
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Process where an area declines once it begins to develop a bad reputation
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Used by Murray: a distinctive 'class' of people whose lifestyle involves seeking to take what they can from the state and living a life involving petty crime and sexual gratification
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Value consensus
General agreement on core beliefs
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Value free
Not letting personal views influence research
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Value laden
Inevitably based on personal values
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Used by Weber: suggests the role of sociology is to understand partly by seeing through the eyes of those being studied
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Victim (or victimisation) survey
Surveys during which people are asked what crimes have happened to them over a particular period
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Welfare dependency
Becoming reliant on state benefits
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White-collar crime
Middle-class crime
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Zero tolerance
Right realist approach to crime - the police should tackle all types of crime/deviance/disorder rather than only react to serious crime
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Zone of transition
Area of city with high level of population turnover
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Durkheim's term for suiciide in societies where rapid change is occurring


Anomic suicide

Card 3


Breakdown of social expectations & behaviour; normlessness


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Card 4


Belief that humans have the right to exploit the environment for their own benefit


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Used by McRobbie & Garber: describes the way in which girls are more likely than boys to socialise with friends in the home, rather than in the streets or other public places


Preview of the back of card 5
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