CANCER REVISION

  • Created by: swal1990
  • Created on: 10-11-18 12:14
What is Cancer?
A general term describing a complex disease caused by the uncontrolled, abnormal cell growth.
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Oncology
The study of cancer
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How do healthy cells differ from cancer cells?
Cancer cells have abnormal regulation, can resist growth inhibitory signals, evade apoptosis and proliferate without limits.
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Apoptosis
Cell death
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Proliferation
A process resulting in an increased number of cells
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Angiogenesis
Formation of new blood vessels. Cancer cells contain a growth factor that allows spontaneous growth of vessels to provide the cancer with oxygen and nutrients; and make them self-sufficient.
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Metastasis
A process by which cancer cells spread from the primary tumor, through the bloodstream, lymph system or through body cavities to a secondary site where they multiply to form a metastatic tutor. NB: NOT ALL CANCERS CAN METASTASISE
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Cell heterogeneity
The concept that cancer cells differ from one another, making them treatment resistant
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Telomerase
An enzyme produced by cancer cells which prevents the telomeres from shortening; thus making it easier to replicate.
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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
A blood test to screen for prostate cancer
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DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid)
carries the genetic code that determines the characteristics of a living organism. Each DNA chain consists of neucleotide strings - Adenosine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine. Neucleotide sequences differ between individuals.
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Gene
Short sections of DNA, which code for proteins
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Chromosomes
Long chains of DNA molecules
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Telomeres
Stretches of DNA which form caps at the end of chromosomes to protect their genetic data (like plastic ends on shoelaces). Each time cells divide, telomeres get shorter. When they get too short, cells can no longer divide and they die.
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Atoms
Small particles of matter, made up of subatomic particles (protons, neutrons and electrons).
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Free Radicals
Atoms with an odd/unpaired number of electrons that are unstable and highly reactive. They can be normal/physiologic and pathological, causing cell damage.
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Ionisation
The process by which neutral/uncharged atoms gain or lose electrons to change their overall charge.
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Ion
A charged atom (can be positive or negative)
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Ionising Radiation
the process by which electromagnetic (radiation) waves carry enough energy to remove electrons from an atom causing it to become ionized and cause cell death. X or Gamma waves are often used as they have higher rates of energy.
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Fractionation
Spreading the total dose of radiotherapy across a number of days.
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Differentiation
The process that allows cells to specialise. Adverse conditions during differentiation can result in helpful and unproductive cellular alterations (i.e. hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, anaplasia)
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Hyperplasia
Increase in number of normal cells, resulting from increased metabolic demands, elevated hormones or stress. Hyperplasia is under normal DNA control.
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Metaplasia
change in normal pattern of differentiation, so that dividing cells differentiate into ones not normally found in a particular location. It is under normal DNA control, protective in adverse conditions, and reversible.
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Dysplasia
loss of DNA control over differentiation, resulting from adverse conditions. They have abnormal variations in size, shape, appearance and arrangement.
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Anaplasia
regression of a cell to an immature/undifferentiated cell type. Not under DNA control. Occurs when an overwhelmingly destructive event occurs during division. Degree of anaplasia determines risk of cancer.
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Carcinogenesis
initiation of cancer formation
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Oncogenes
Abnormal genes that promote cell proliferation and can lead to cancer. They are typically suppressed by tumor suppressor genes.
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Carcinogen
A substance capable of causing cancer. They can be categorised as genotoxic and promoter substances.
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Genotoxic carcinogens
A chemical or agent known to destroy genetic information in cells (i.e. DNA), cause mutations, and lead to cancer.
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Neoplasm
Collection of cells that grows independently of its surrounding structure and has no physiological purpose.
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Benign neoplasm
Localised growth that is encapsulated, slow growing, remain stable in size and are subject to contact inhibition.
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Contact inhibition
The process whereby tutors stop growing when they reach the boundaries of another tissue.
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Malignant neoplasm
These grow aggressively, often have an irregular shape, and do not stop at tissue borders. They are invasive, destroy surrounding tissue, cause tissue death and can metastasise.
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Anorexia-cachexia
A wasted appearance that is characteristic of cancer.
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Chemotaxis
Movement of cells in response to a chemical stimulus. This process draws tutors into normal tissue.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The study of cancer

Back

Oncology

Card 3

Front

Cancer cells have abnormal regulation, can resist growth inhibitory signals, evade apoptosis and proliferate without limits.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cell death

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A process resulting in an increased number of cells

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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