Cancer drugs

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What are the classes of anticancer drug
Cytotoxic, hormone, monoclonal antibodies, protein kinase inhibitors
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What are the types of cytotoxic cancer drug
Nitrogen mustard's, nitrosoureas, platinum compounds, other platinum compounds
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What do the nitrogen mustard's do.
They are very reactive, given as IV
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What are examples of nitrogen mustards
mechlorethamine, cyclophophamide, melphalan, chlorambucil, bendamustine and estramustine
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What are nitrosoureas
These are highly lipophilic drugs, which cross the BBB. they treat CNS tumours
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What are examples of nitrosoureas
carmusting (given IV). Lomustine (given orally)
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Where do plantium compounds bind to
They bind to the RNA bases (GAU.
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What do plantium compounds do
They act as a potent alkali - given by slow IV/infusion
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what are examples of platinum compounds
Cisplantin
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What is an other plantinum compound
Carboplantin (dervied from cisplantin), Oxaliplantin, busulfan, procarazine, trabectedin
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Which has more side effects carboplantin, cisplantin
Cisplantin
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What does oxaliptin treat
colorectal cancer, with fluorouracil and folinic acid
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What does busulfan treat
selective hone marrow leukemia
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What does procarbazine treat
treat hodgkins disease
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what does trabectedin treat
treat soft tissue sarcoma and advanced ovarian cancer
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What are the side effects of most anticancer drugs
because they affect all repidly dividing cells, they affect bone marrow suppression (which reduced RBC/WBC), impaired wound healing, loss of hair, damage to GI epithelium, growth stunded, sterility, teratogenicty, N+V, kidney damage
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What part of the cell cycle does alkylating agents work on
S phase - as it forms cross bridges on DNA to prevent unwinding and therefore transcription.
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What is cyclophosphamide
Nitrogen mustuard (pro drug)
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what does prodrug mean
it means it is non toxic until it is activated
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what is cyclophosphamide converted to (activated)
nitrogen mustard + acrolein (which gives haemorrhagic cytitis)
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what are aditional side effects of alkalyting agents
very nephrotoxic (so need to give lots of water), causes N+V. there is a risk of tinnitus, peripheral neuopathy, gout, anphylaxis
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what do antimetabolitics do
They disrupt DNA synthesis
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What are the three types of antimetabolitics
Folate antagonist, pyrimidine analogues, purine analogues
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Why do we use folate antagnoits as a antimetabolitics
Because folate is used for DNA synthesis/cell division. So folate antagnoits work by blocking folate
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What is an example of a folate antagnoists
methotrexate
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What bases does pyrimidine analogues work on
C + T
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how do pyrimidine analogues work
They are competetive inhibiters of DNA bases C +T. so inhibit DNA synthesis
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What is some examples of pyrimidine analgues
Fluorouacil, capecitabine, cytarabine, gemcitabine
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What bases do purine metabolists work on
They compete with DNA bases (A + G)- which inhibits purine metabolism
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What are examples of purine anaglogues
mercaptopurine/tioguanine (used in leukaemia treatment), pentostatin, and fludarabine
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What is the side effect of methotrexate
it is excreteed unchanged in the urine, so toxic to patients with renal impairments
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What are the two cytoxic antibiotics we talk about
doxorubicin , bleomycin, dactiomycin
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how does doxorubicin work
binds to the DNA and inhibits DNA/RNA synthesis- given IV
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How does bleomycin work
works by degrading pre-formed DNA and is active againt non-dividing cells
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what do we use dactinomycin for
pediatric cancer
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what are the side effects of doxorubicin
can cause local necrosis and cardiac dysrhythmias/heart failure in high doses
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what can bleomycin cause
fibrosis in 10% of patients, and mucocutaneous reactions (mouth sources, hair loss, fungal infection)
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what are the three main types of plant derivatives
vinca alkaloids, taxanes, eptopside
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how do vinca alkaloids work
they work by blocking the spindle formations
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what are examples of vinca alkaloids
vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine
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how do taxanes work
by similar mechanisms to vinca alkaloids
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examples of taxanes
paclitaxel/docetaxel (used to treat advanced BC , carboplatin (ovarian cancer)
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what do etoposides treat
testicucular cancer, lymphomas - but must avoid skin contact
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what is a side effect of vinca alkaloids
cramp (neuromusulcar)
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what is a side effect if taxanes
drop in BP
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What is a side effect of etopside
side effects of oestrogen (N, fluid retension, thrombosis, impotence, gynaemocstain)
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Where/how do hormones treat cancer
used to treat cancer in hormone sensitive tissue- such as breast, prostate and ovaries. they work by opposing the actions of or blocking the synthesis of endogenous hormones
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what are examples of oestrogen cancer drugs
ethinyloestratdiol, diethylstilbestrol
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Why are oestrogen cancer drugs used for
they are used as antagonists in pallitive prostrate cancer
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what are examples of progesterone cancer drugs
megestrol, medroxprogesterone, norethisterone
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why are progesterone cancer drugs used
to treat endometrial cancer
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what are exampels of GnRH analogues
Goserlin, buserelin, leukproplin, triptorelin
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How do GnRH analogues work
They work by lowering L/ FSH and lower testoesterone
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What do GnRH treat
treat prostate cancer/ advanced breast cancer in premenopausal women
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What are example of somatic analogues
octreotide, lanreotide
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How do somatic analogues work
They work by inhibiting cel proliferation/ hormone (CCK/gastrin) secretion and are used to treat hormone secreting tumours in the GI tract
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what is an example of a hormone aganist
tamoxifen (+fulverntstrant)
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How do hormone agonists work
competitive antagonist at oesprogen receptors. they inhibit the transcription of oestrogen responsive genes (breast cancer)
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Monoclonal antibodies? where are they produced
they are produced by cultured hybridoma cells
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Card 2

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What are the types of cytotoxic cancer drug

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Nitrogen mustard's, nitrosoureas, platinum compounds, other platinum compounds

Card 3

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What do the nitrogen mustard's do.

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Card 4

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What are examples of nitrogen mustards

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Card 5

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What are nitrosoureas

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