What are four examples of chemicals produced large scale?
1)Ammonia.2)Sodium hydroxide.3)Sulfuric acid.4)Phosphoric acid.
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What are chemicals produced on a large scale called?
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What are chemicals produced on a smaller scale called?
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What are three examples of chemicals produced on a small scale?
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What is done before new chemicals are made?
1)Lots of research and development.2)Can take years,expensive.3)Worth it as company make lot of money.
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What are the steps taken when a catalyst is being tested?
1)Test using trial and error.2)Make computer models of reaction-work out which substance might work.3)Designing or refining catalyst to make sure it's safe and cost effective.4)Environmental risks.5)Monitor quality of product.
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Why do governments place strict controls on everything related to chemical processes?
Protect workers,general public and the environment.
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What are three chemical regulations set by the government?
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Explain regulations on the use of chemicals.
Restrict acid usage and require signs to warn public,e.g. sulfuric acid sprayed on potato fields to destroy leaves-make harvesting easier.
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Explain storage of chemicals.
Dangerous chemicals must be locked up.Poisonous chemicals stored in sealed containers or ventilated store cupboards.
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Explain transportation of chemicals.
Lorries must display hazard symbols and identification numbers-help emergency service if there are accidents or spills.
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What are the 5 stages for chemical synthesis?
1)Preparation of feedstock.2)Synthesis.3)Separation of products.4)Monitoring purity of product.5)Handling of by products and wastes.
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Explain preparation of feedstock.
1)Raw materials are naturally occurring substances e.g.crude oil.2)Feedstocks are actual reactants needed for process e.g.hydrogen,ethanol.3)Raw materials usually purified or changed to make them feedstock.
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1)Reactants (feedstocks) converted to products.2)Conditions carefully controlled to ensure reactions occurs at safe rate.
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Explain separation of products.
1)Reactions produce substances you want and others(aka by-products)may be useful.2)Could have left-over reactants.3)Everything separated out.
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Explain monitoring purity of product.
1)Sometimes things still has impurities in it.2)Purity monitored to make sure it's certain level.3)Different industries have different purity levels depending on use.If slightly impure product still useful,use it instead of paying to make it pure.
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Explain handling of by-products and waste.
1)By-products sold or used in another reaction if possible.2)If reaction is exothermic=waste heat.Heat exchangers use excess eat to make steam or hot water for other reactions.3)waste carefully disposed of-legal requirements to meet.
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What are sustainable processes?
Meet needs of people today without affecting ability of future generations to meet own needs.
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What are 8 key questions about sustainability?
1)Will raw materials run out?2)How good is the atom economy?3)What to do with waste products?4)What are energy costs?5)Will it damage environment?6)Health and safety risks?7)Benefits or risks to society?8)Is it profitable?
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Explain 'will the raw materials run out?'
If feedstock is renewable,can use as much as you like.If it's not it will run out-cause problems for future generations.
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Explain 'how good is the atom economy?'
Atom economy tells you how much mass of reactants end up as useful products.Reactions with low atom economy use resources quickly.
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Explain 'what do i do with waste products?'
Waste products can be expensive to dispose of.Take up space and cause pollution.Can find use for waste products or use a different reaction with useful by-products.
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Explain 'what are the energy costs?'
If reaction needs lot of energy,will be expensive.Providing energy often involved burning fossil fuels.But,if process releases energy,it can be used for something else-saves money and environment.
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Explain 'will it damage the environment?'
If reaction produces harmful chemicals not good for environment.Need to consider where raw materials come from and consider transportation.
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Explain 'What are the health and safety risks?'
Laws that companies must follow-make sure workers and public aren't put in danger.Companies must test products.
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Explain 'Are there any benefits or risks to society?'
Factory creates jobs for community and brings money.May not look nice and could be hazardous.
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Explain 'Is it profitable?'
If costs of process are higher than income,won't be profitable.
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What must always be supplied to break bonds?
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What happens during a chemical reaction (in terms of bonds)?
Old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed.
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What kind of process is bond breaking?
Endothermic-energy used to break bonds greater than energy released by forming them.
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What kind of process is bond formation?
Exothermic-energy released by formation of bonds greater than energy used to break them.
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What is the bond energy for H----H?
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What is the bond energy for Cl---Cl?
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What is the bond energy for H---Cl?
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What is the formula for overall energy change?
Energy required to break bonds-energy released by forming bonds.
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What is needed to start a reaction?
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What is activation energy?
The minimum amount of energy needed for bonds to break and the reaction to start.
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What will happen if the energy input is less than the activation energy?
Nothing-not enough energy to start reaction.
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What do catalysts do?
Changes the speed of the reaction without using up energy.
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What do catalysts do to the activation energy?
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When a catalyst is used,what is the overall energy change like?
Remains the same.
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What is a reversible reaction?
Where the products of the reaction can react themselves to produce the original reactants.
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What is a closed system?
Means none of the reactants or products can escape.
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What will happen if a reversible reaction takes place in a closed system?
A state of equilibrium will always be reached.
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What does equilibrium mean?
The relative percentage quantities of reactants and products will reach a certain balance and stay there.
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A reversible reaction will reach dynamic equilibrium,what does this mean?
The reactions are still taking place in both directions but there is no overall effect as the forward and reverse reactions cancel each other out.Happen at same rate.
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Give an example of a reversible reaction.
The Haber process.
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What is the word equation for the Haber process?
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What are the feedstocks for the Haber process?
Nitrogen and Hydrogen.
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What does the Haber process produce?
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Where is the nitrogen from in the Haber process?
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Where is the hydrogen from in the Haber process?
The cracking of chemicals in natural gas using steam
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Why doesn't the Haber process reach equilibrium?
The gases don't stay in the reaction vessel long enough.
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What happens to the nitrogen and hydrogen that don't react?
They are recycled and passed through again-none is waste.
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What does recycling the hydrogen and nitrogen mean?
More ammonia will be produced using the same amount of reactants-increasing the yield.
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What are the industrial conditions for the Haber process?
Pressure=200 atmospheres.Temperature=450 degrees.Catalyst=iron.
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Explain how pressure affects the Haber process.
Higher pressure,increases forward reaction,so pressure is set as high as possible for large yield.But it can't be too high as it would be very expensive to build plant, so 200 atmospheres is used.
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Explain how temperature affects the Haber process.
Forward reaction is exothermic, so increasing temperature would mean equilibrium was wrong way-less ammonia.Lower temperature means lower rate of reaction.So,temperature increased anyway for faster reaction.So,450 degrees used.
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What is nitrogen fixation?
The process of turning nitrogen from the air into useful nitrogen compounds like ammonia.
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What is most of the ammonia from the Haber process used to make?
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Explain the role of fertilisers.
Vital part in world food production-increase crop yield-feed more people.
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What can fertilisers do when used in large amounts?
Pollute water supplies and cause eutrophication.
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1)Fertilisers washed into lakes and rivers.2)Stimulate growth of algae-blocks light so other plants die.3)Microorganisms feed on dead plants and use up all oxygen.4)Oxygen not replaced so animal life dies.
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How is ammonia used in industry?
Manufacture plastics,explosives and pharmaceuticals.
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Why is the iron catalyst in the Haber process important?
It makes the rate of the reaction much faster-ammonia is produced faster.Without the catalyst,temperature would need to be raised even more,so percentage yield would decrease.
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What is an example of a biological catalyst?
An enzyme-can be used at room temperature and pressure.
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Why do chemists want to make catalysts that mimic enzymes?
So that processes like the Haber process can be done at room temperature and pressure, it would save money and be more efficient.
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Will the raw materials from the Haber process run out?
The hydrogen comes from fossils fuels,which are non-renewable.Nitrogen comes from air and is unlikely to run out.
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How good is the atom economy in the Haber process?
All nitrogen and hydrogen is used to make ammonia so economy is excellent.
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What is done with the waste products from the Haber process?
No waste products as chemicals are all recycled.
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What are the energy costs of the Haber process?
Lots of energy needed to keep the temperature at 450 degrees and 200 atmospheres.
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Will the Haber process damage the environment?
Yes as the ammonia it creates is used to make fertilisers which cause eutrophication. `
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What are the health and safety risks of the Haber process?
Working at high temperatures and pressures can be very dangerous.
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Does the Haber process have any benefits or risks to society?
Making ammonia can help world food production.
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Is the Haber process profitable?
Yes, making ammonia is a big business.
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What are alkanes?
A family of hydrocarbons made up of chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms.
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What kind of bonds do alkanes have?
Single covalent bonds (saturated compounds).
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What is the formula for alkanes?
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane,Ethane,propane and butane.
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What is made when alkanes and oxygen react?
Alkane+Oxygen=Carbon dioxide +water.
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What does the state symbol l stand for?
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What does the state symbol g stand for?
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What does the state symbol s stand for?
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What does the state symbol aq stand for?
Dissolved in water.
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Explain what the reactivity of alkanes is like.
Unreactive towards most chemicals.Don't react with aqueous reagents(things dissolved in water).
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Why don't alkanes react?
Because the C-C bonds and C-H bonds are difficult to break.
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What is the formula for alcohols?
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What is the functional group for alcohols?
OH-all alcohols have similar properties because of this.
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What are similarities and differences between alkanes,alcohols and water?
1)Ethanol soluble in water,alcohol not.2)Ethanol+water good solvents.3)BP-ethanol is 78,lower than water(100) but much higher than alkanes (ethene=-103).4)Ethanol liquid at room temp,volatile.Methane,ethane volatile gas room temp,water liquid not vol
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What are uses of alcohols?
Useful solvents in industry-can dissolve things water can't.2)Methanol=starting point for manufacturing other organic chemicals.3)Ethanol=perfume,can mix with oils and water.4)"Methylated spirit" is ethanol with chemicals-used to clean paint brushes.
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How can alcohols be used with petrol?
Pure ethanol mixed with petrol for cars to conserve crude oil.
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What is an ethanol and sodium reaction like?What is the equation for this reaction?
Gentle. Ethanol +sodium=sodium ethoxide and hydrogen.
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What is a water and sodium reaction like?What is the equation?
Vigorous.Sodium+Water=Sodium hydroxide +Hydrogen.
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What is an alkane and sodium reaction like?
They do not react together.
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How is ethanol in alcoholic drinks usually made?
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What does fermentation do?
Uses yeast to convert sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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What enzyme does the yeast cell contain?What does it do?
Zymase, it acts as a catalyst during fermentation.
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What temperature does fermentation happen fastest?Why?
30 degrees because the zymase works best at this temperature.
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What PH does zymase work its best?
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Why is it important to prevent oxygen getting to the fermentation process?
Oxygen converts ethanol to ethanoic acid (vinegar) which lowers the PH and stops the enzyme working.
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When does the fermentation reaction stop?Why?
When the ethanol concentration reaches 10%-20% as the yeast gets killed off by the ethanol.
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How can more concentrated ethanol be produced?
By distilling the mixture from fermentation-used to make things like brandy or whiskey.
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Explain how distillation works.
1)Ethanol solution put in flask below fractioning column.2)Solution heated so ethanol boils-vapour travels up column and cools.3)Eveything else cools to liquid and flows back.4)Pure ethanol vapour reaches top of column.Continued....
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5)Ethanol vapour flows through condenser-cooled to liquid,which is then collected.
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Will the raw materials from fermentation run out?
Sugar beet and yeast grow fast-won't run out.
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How good is the atom economy of fermentation?
Waste carbon dioxide produced-low atom economy.Also,enzyme killed off by ethanol,so it's even less efficient.
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What is done with the waste products of fermentation?
Waste carbon dioxide released without processing.
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What are the energy costs of fermentation?
Energy needed to keep reaction at optimum temperature.
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Will fermentation damage the environment?
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas so adds to global warming.
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What are the health and safety risks of fermentation?
Don't have any specific dangers.
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Does fermentation have any benefits or risks to society?
Making ethanol doesn't impact society.
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Is fermentation profitable?
Depends on what ethanol is used for e.g. drinking or fuel.
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What is another way ethanol can be made?
From waste biomass e.g. corn stalks,straw,wood pulp,rice husks.
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Explain how ethanol is made from biomass.
1)Waste biomass cannot be fermented normal was as it has lots of cellulose.Yeast can't convert cellulose to ethanol.2)E.coli can be genetically modified to convert cellulose to ethanol.3)optimum temp=35 and PH=8.
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Is producing ethanol from waste biomass sustainable?
Similar to standard fermentation as similar processes used.Advantage of biomass is you don't need to grow crops-can use waste.
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How is ethanol made on an industrial scale?
Reacting ethene with steam.
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Why is this method better than fermentation for industrial use?
Faster,high quality ethanol made-produced continuously and quickly.
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Explain how ethanol is made using steam and ethene.
1)Ethane cracked(split) to form ethene and hydrogen gas.2)Ethene reacts with steam to make ethanol.3)Reaction uses temp of 300 degrees,pressure of 70.Catalyst=phosphoric acid.
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What is the formula for ethene?
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Will the raw materials for producing ethanol from ethane run out?
Crude oil and natural gas are non-renewable.
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How good is the atom economy for producing ethanol from ethane?
Cracking ethane has quite high economy as only waste is hydrogen.Reacting ethene has higher economy as only ethanol is made.
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What is done with the waste products from producing ethanol from ethane?
Only waste is hydrogen.Can be reused to make ammonia in Haber process.
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What are the energy costs of producing ethanol from ethane ?
Energy needed to maintain high temperature and pressure.
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Will producing ethanol from ethane damage the environment?
Reactions don't produce product that directly harms environment, but crude oil can e.g. oil spillage.
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What are the health and safety risks of producing ethanol from ethane?
High temperature and pressure have to be carefully controlled.
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Are there any benefits or risks to society when producing ethanol from ethane?
No specific impact on society.
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Is producing ethanol from ethane profitable?
Yes, it's continuous and quick,raw materials fairly cheap.Won't stay like this when crude oil starts to run out.
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What is the functional group of carboxylic acid?
COOH-gives them similar properties.
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What do the names of carboxylic acids end in?
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Do carboxylic acids react the same as other acids?
Yes,react with alkalis,carbonates and reactive metals like other acids.
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What do the salts formed in reactions with carboxylic acids end in?
-anoate e.g. ethanoate.
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What does a carboxylic acid produce when reacted with metals?
Salt,water and hydrogen.
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What does a carboxylic acid produce when reacted with carbonates?
Salt,water and carbon dioxide.
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What does a carboxylic acid produce when reacted with an alkali?
Salt and water.
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What are carboxylic acids like?
Weak acids,less reactive than strong acids like hydrochloric acid,sulfuric acid and nitric acid.
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What will the PH of dilute weak acids be like compared to the PH of strong acids?
Weaker dilute acids will have a higher PH.
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What do carboxylic acids smell like?
Have strong smells and tastes.
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What happens to wine or beer that's left open to the air?
Ethanol is oxidised to ethanoic acid(vinegar).
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What functional group do esters have?
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How are esters formed?What is the reaction called?
Formed from an alcohol and carboxylic acid. Called an esterification reaction.
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What do you need to start esterification?
A strong acid catalyst e.g. concentrated sulfuric acid.
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What do esters smell like?
Pleasant smells-sweet and fruity.
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What are uses of esters?
1)Perfumes-they're volatile.2)Flavourings and aromas.3)Solvents-paint,ink,glue,nail varnish remover.4)Platicisers-added to plastics to make more flexible.
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What are fatty acids?
A carboxylic acid with long chains-between 16 and 20 carbon atoms.
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What is glycerol?
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What do fatty acids and glycerol combine to make/
Fats and oils-mostly made of fatty acid chains which is what gives them their properties.
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Are fatty acids saturated or unsaturated?
They can be both.
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Why are fats good at storing energy?
They have lots of energy packed into them.
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What does an organism do when it has more energy than it needs?
It is stored as fat that can be used later on when more energy is needed.
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What are animal fats like?
Mainly saturated hydrocarbon chains.Normally solid at room temperature.
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What are vegetable oils like?
Mainly unsaturated hydrocarbon chains.Normally liquid at room temperature.
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What are the 4 steps of making an ester?
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1)React ethanol and ethanoic acid with catalyst to make ethyl ethanoate.2)Heating can speed up reaction.3)Mixture heated gently in flask with condenser that catches and recycles vapour,giving them time to react,called refluxing.
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1)Separates ester from everything else.2)Mixture heated below fractioning column, as it boils,vapour goes up fractioning column.3)When top of column reaches boiling point of ethyl ethanoate,liquid flows out condenser and is collected.
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What is the liquid that flows out of the condenser?
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1)Liquid poured into tap funnel and shaken with sodium carbonate solution to remove acidic impurities.2)Ethyl ethanoate doesn't mix with water in solution,so it separates-solution tapped off.3)Remaining shaken with calcium chloride to remove ethanol.
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What happens after calcium chloride is added?
The layer is tapped off.
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1)Any remaining water removed by shaking with lumps of anhydrous calcium chloride-absorbs water.2)Finally,pure ethyl ethanoate separated from solid calcium chloride by filtration.
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What does qualitative analysis tell you?
Which substances are present in a sample-no amounts though.
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What does quantitative analysis tell you?
How much of a substance is present in a sample.
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What is chemical analysis carried out on?
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Why is analysis done on samples?
1)Difficult to test all material if there's a lot.2)If something goes wrong,you can get another sample.
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What must a sample represent?
A bulk of the material being tested.
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How are samples analysed?
In a solution.
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How are solutions made?
By dissolving the sample in a solvent.
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What are the 2 types of solution?
Aqueous and non-aqueous.
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What is an aqueous solution like?
Solvent is water, shown by symbol aq.
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What is a non-aqueous solution like?
Solvent dissolved in anything other than water.
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What are standard procedures?
Agreed methods of working-chosen as they'e safest,most effective and most accurate.
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What can standard procedures be agreed within?
A company,nationally or internationally.
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Why are standard procedures useful?
Whenever or wherever test is done,result should always be the same-reliable results every time.
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What are there standard procedures for in terms of samples?
Collection and storage and how it should be analysed.
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What is chromatography?
An analytical method used to separate substances in a mixture-can then identify them.
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What are the 2 phases of chromatography?
A mobile phase and a stationary phase.
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Describe the mobile phase.
Where molecules can move,always liquid or gas.
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Describe the stationary phase.
Where molecules can't move.Solid or really thick liquid.
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What happens to the components in the mixture as the mobile phase moves across the stationary phase?
The components separate out.
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What does how the speed a chemical moves depend on?
How it distributes itself between the 2 phases-so different chemicals end up at different points.
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When does chromatography reach dynamic equilibrium?
When the amount leaving the stationary phase for the mobile phase is the same as the amount leaving the mobile phase for the stationary phase.
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In paper chromatography,what is the stationary phase?
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In paper chromatography,what is the mobile phase?
The solvent e.g. ethanol or water.
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Explain how to set up paper chromatography.
1)Put spots of substances being tested onto baseline of paper.2)Bottom of paper placed in beaker containing solvent(ethanol or water0.
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Explain what happens during paper chromatography.
1)Solvent moves up paper.2)Chemicals in sample dissolve in solvent and move between it and paper-sets up equilibrium.3)When in mobile phase,chemicals move up paper with solvent.4)Before solvent reaches top,paper is removed from beaker.Continued...
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Paper chromatography continued..
5)Different chemicals from substance have different dots.Chemicals that spend more time in mobile phase than stationary are higher up paper.
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What does the amount of time a molecule spends in each phase depend on?
1)How soluble they are in solvent.2)How attracted they are to paper.
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What is the difference between thin-layer chromatography and paper chromatography.
Stationary phase is thin layer of solid.
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What is the result of chromatography analysis called.
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If some of the spots on the chromatogram are colourless,what do you need to do to see it?
Use a locating agent.
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What are solutes?
The spots on the chromatogram.
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What is the formula for Rf value?
Distance travelled by solute divided by distance travelled by solvent.
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Why is chromatography carried out?
To see if a certain substance is present.
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What do chemists use to check the identities of substances?
Standard reference materials (SRM's).
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What is gas chromatography used for?
Analyse unknown substances.
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What is the mobile phase?
An unreactive gas e.g. nitrogen.
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What is the stationary phase?
A viscous liquid e.g. an oil.
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Explain gas chromatography.
1)Unknown mixture injected into long tube coated on inside with stationary phase.2)Mixture moves along tube with mobile phase until it comes out other end.3)Time for chemical to travel through tube called retention time-different for each chemical.
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What is the chromatogram for gas chromatography?
A graph-each peak represents different chemical.
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What is the X-axis labelled as?
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What does the peak height show you?
How much of the chemical was in the sample.
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What is the formula for concentration?
Mass of solute DIVIDED BY volume of solution.
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What is a standard solution?
Any solution that you know the concentration of.
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Explain how to make a standard solution.
1)Work out grams needed.2)Weigh out mass of solute.3)Add distilled water to beaker,stir until dissolved.4)Tip solution into volumetric flask-use funnel.5)Rinse beaker then add to flask.6)Top flask to correct volume-use meniscus.Continued.....
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Standard solution continued...
7)Stopper bottle and turn it to mix it all.8)Check meniscus lines up.
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What do you do in a titration?
Record the volume of acid or alkali added from burette to neutralise acid or alkali.
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Why is it best to repeat the titration?
To prevent outliers-caused by faulty equipment or human error.
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How can you be confident in your results?
If they are similar and reliable.
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Explain how to work out the identity of an unknown element in a compound.
1)Find mass of acid and alkali that reacts.2)Find RFM of known solute.3)Find RFM of unknown solute using balanced equation.4)Identify metal hydroxide.
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Other cards in this set
What are chemicals produced on a large scale called?
What are chemicals produced on a smaller scale called?
What are three examples of chemicals produced on a small scale?
What is done before new chemicals are made?