C6

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  • Created by: zoe
  • Created on: 07-01-14 18:21
The processes in which raw materials are made into useful products is called...
Chemical synthesis
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Bulk chemicals are made on a...
large scale
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Fine chemicals are used on a...
small scale
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The acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution is measured by...
the pH scale
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Acids have a pH less than...
7
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You can detect an acid or alkali using...
litmus paper
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What do acidic compounds produce when they are dissolved in water?
Aqueous hydrogen ions
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What do alkali compounds produce when they are dissolved in water?
aqueous hydroxide ions
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acid + base ---->
salt + water
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When you mix an acid and alkali it causes a...
neutralisation reaction
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H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ----------->
H2O (I)
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What type of salt does hydrochloric acid produce?
chloride salts
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What type of salt does sulfuric acid produce?
sulfate salts
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What type of salt does nitric acid produce?
nitrate salts
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What changes release energy usually as heat because the products have less energy than the reactants did?
Exothermic
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What changes are less common than exothermic changes and take in energy so usually feel cold to touch. this means the products have more energy than the reactants did?
Endothermic
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Why can exothermic reactions sometimes be dangerous?
because they can reach very high temperatures if they are'nt adequately controlled
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Endothermic reactions in industry are difficult because?
they can take a lot of energy to make them happen
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Actual yield / Theoretical yield x 100 =
Percentage yield
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Starting materials are called?
reactants
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New substances are called?
products
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What is the actual yield?
the actual amount of product made
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What is the theoretical yield?
the amount of product you would expect to get if the reaction goes to completion
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What is step 1 in chemical synthesis?
establish the reaction or series of reactions that are needed to make the product
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What is step 2 in chemical synthesis?
carry out a risk assessment and work out the reactant quantities
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What is step 3 in chemical synthesis?
carry out the reaction
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What is step 4 in chemical synthesis?
separate the product from the reaction mixture
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What is step 5 in chemical synthesis?
Purify the product
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What is step 6 in chemical synthesis?
Weigh the mass and calculate the percentage yield
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What is step 7 in chemical synthesis?
check the yield and purity by titration
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What shows the mass of one atom in comparison to the mass of other atoms?
relative atomic mass
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In a compound the relative atomic mass of all its elements added together is called?
The relative formula mass
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Why is it important to know the purity of a product?
impurities can be dangerous
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What can be used to calculate the concentration of an acid by finding out how much alkali is needed to neutralise it?
Titration
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Actual mass of pure substance / Mass of impure substance x 100 =
Percentage Purity
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What is the rate of a chemical reaction?
the amount of products given in a unit of time
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What three ways can be used to find the rate of reaction?
weighing the reaction mixture, measuring the volume of gas produced, observing the formation of precipitate
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What four factors can speed up the rate of reaction?
Temperature, Concentration, Surface area, Catalyst
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What is the collision theory?
Particles must collide to react with each other
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What is the activation theory?
particles must have enough energy to react with each other
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What lowers the amount of energy needed for a successful collision?
a catalyst
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On a reaction graph the steeper the line the what?
faster the reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Bulk chemicals are made on a...

Back

large scale

Card 3

Front

Fine chemicals are used on a...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution is measured by...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Acids have a pH less than...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

lisa linsdell

A large set of flip cards for this topic, Lots that revise the steps in chemical synthesis, key words and phrases.

davetheravemicrowave

lisa ur everywhere luv

MCFrazzleDazzle

love that from you davetheravemicrowave

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