C5

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: zoe
  • Created on: 16-03-14 08:44
What is the atmosphere?
a layer of gas surrounding the earth
1 of 35
What is the atmosphere made up of?
the elements nitrogen, oxygen and argon, the compounds, carbon dioxide and water vapour
2 of 35
What is the hydrosphere mostly made up of?
water and some dissolved compounds
3 of 35
What is the lithosphere?
the rigid outer layer of the earth made up of the crust and the part of the mantle just below it
4 of 35
What does the lithosphere consist of?
a mixture of minerals like silicon dioxide and an abundance of the elements silicon, oxygen and aluminium
5 of 35
What is the dry atmospheric air made up of?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide
6 of 35
What do the chemicals that make up the atmosphere consist of?
non-metal elements, molecular compounds made up from non-metal elements
7 of 35
Apart from water what state are the molecules that make up the atmosphere at 20*c?
gasses
8 of 35
Why dont pure molecular compounds conduct electricity?
their molecules arent charged
9 of 35
What happens to the electrons in a covalent bond?
shared between the atoms
10 of 35
In a covalent bond what is created between each positive nucleus and the shared pair of negative electrons?
strong electrostatic attraction
11 of 35
What two things are both minerals formed from pure carbon that is found in the lithosphere?
diamond, graphite
12 of 35
Why is graphite soft?
the covalent bonds are arranged in sheets that can easily slide over each other
13 of 35
Why can graphite conduct electricity?
spare electrons can move between the layers of atoms
14 of 35
Why is diamond so hard?
each atom is covalently bonded to 4 other atoms
15 of 35
What are the properties of silicon dioxide?
hard, high melting point, electrical insulator, insoluble in water
16 of 35
Why is seawater in the hydrosphere salty?
it contains dissolved ionic compounds called salts
17 of 35
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points?
the ions are held together by strong forces of attraction in a lattice
18 of 35
Why don't solid ionic compounds conduct electricity?
the ions are fixed in place and cant move
19 of 35
Why cant molten (or dissolved) ionic compounds conduct electricity?
the ions aren't free to move
20 of 35
What can you use to detect ions in aqueous solutions?
precipitation reactions
21 of 35
What is formed when calcium and carbonate ions are combined?
form the insoluble ionic compound calcium carbonate or limestone
22 of 35
How can many positive metal ions be identified in a solution?
adding sodium hydroxide and observing the precipitate colour
23 of 35
How can many negative ions be identified in solution?
they will react with other aqueous ions to produce an insoluble precipitate
24 of 35
What are ores?
rocks that contain varying amounts of minerals, from which metals can be extracted
25 of 35
How can metals that are less reactive than carbon be extracted from their oxides?
heating it with carbon as the metal oxide is reduced and the carbon is oxidised
26 of 35
What is the total mass of the atoms in a compound called?
relative formula mass
27 of 35
What is electrolysis?
the breaking down of an electrolyte using an electric current
28 of 35
When is electrolysis used?
to extract reactive metals from their ores because they're too reactive to be extracted by heating with carbon
29 of 35
What happens to the ions when they get to the oppositely charged electrode in electrolysis?
they're discharged
30 of 35
What happens when a direct current is passed through a molten ionic compound?
positively charged ions are attracted to the negative electrode, negatively charged ions are attracted to the positive electrode
31 of 35
What does malleable mean?
metals can be beaten into shape or dented as the layers of metal ions can slide over each other
32 of 35
What is the environmental impact of mining?
wasted rock, leaves a scar on the landscape, air/noise pollution
33 of 35
What is the environmental impact of processing?
transport pollution, energy usage, electrolysis uses more energy than redction
34 of 35
What do the properties of metals determine?
What they are used for
35 of 35

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the atmosphere made up of?

Back

the elements nitrogen, oxygen and argon, the compounds, carbon dioxide and water vapour

Card 3

Front

What is the hydrosphere mostly made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the lithosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the lithosphere consist of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all Chemicals of the natural environment resources »