C5

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what are the different parts of the earth?
the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere
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what are the chemicals in the atmosphere
nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and argon/other (1%) - they are non-metal elements and compounds
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name the features of the atmosphere chemicals?
all gases at 20 degrees, have weak forces of attraction between them (only a small amount of force needed to break them) and they have covelent bonds which means a strong electrostatic attraction is created between the nucleus and negative electrons
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what is the lithosphere and what are the most abundant elements?
lithosphere = the crust and the mantle just below it. the most abundant elements are oxygen, silicon and aluminium
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describe the structure of diamond?
diamond = pure carbon atoms each covalently bonded to 4 other carbon atoms (hard) and have strong bonds so has a high MP and is insoluble in water - silicon has similar properties
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describe the structure of graphite
graphite = carbon atoms covelatly bonded to 3 other atoms and there arranged in sheets which slide over one another (soft) spare atoms between the sheets (conduct electricity). also have a high MP and are insoluble in water
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what are the properties of ionic compounds?
high MP (the ions are held together by strong forces of attraction), don't conduct electricity when solid (ions are fixed and can't move) and does when dissolved (the ions are free to move)
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how can you use the precipitation test for ions?
insoluable solids for in reactions (precipitates) which can be used to detect ions in solutions. you can make predictions by looking at solubility info
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how can you test for positive metal ions?
add sodium hydroxide to the solution and observe the colour of the precipitate
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how can you test for negative ions?
they can be identified because they react with other ions to produce precipitates that can be identified.
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how are useful metals extracted?
metals which are less reactive than carbon are heated with carbon (the metal is reduced and the carbon id oxidised) and metals that are more reactive than carbon = electrolysis
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what is relative formula mass?
the total mass of the atoms in a compound - take the RAM of each element and add them together
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describe electrolysis...
ionic compounds are melted so that their ions are free to move and they conduct electricity. when a current is passed through them the positively charged ions are attracted to the negative electrode (vis versa). the ions are then discharged
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how is aluminium extracted by electrolysis?
the ore is purified to leave the oxide which is mixed wiht cryolite so the ions can move. the current passes through and the aluminium iona are attracted to the negative electrode. oxygen is formed at the positive electrode.
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describe the properties of metals...
strong (ions are closely packed together = lots of attraction forces), high MP (lots of energy needed to break the bonds), malleable (the layers of ions can slide over each other) and they conduct electricity(electrons are free to move between layers
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how are metals used in every day life?
there properties determine their use - titanium = strong (submarines) and aluminium = malleable (drinks cans)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the chemicals in the atmosphere

Back

nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and argon/other (1%) - they are non-metal elements and compounds

Card 3

Front

name the features of the atmosphere chemicals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the lithosphere and what are the most abundant elements?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

describe the structure of diamond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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