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What are the three most abudant elements in the lithosphere?
Oxygen, silicon and aluminium.
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What are the two minerals formed from pure carbon found in the lithosphere?
Diamond and graphite.
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The atoms within molecules are connected by strong covalent bonds. In a covalent bond...
the electrons are shared between the atoms, a strong electrostatic attraction is created between each positive nucleus and the shared pair of negative electrons.
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In the structure of a diamond...
Each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. This explains why diamond is very hard. Many strong covalent bonds=very high melting point. Does not conduct electricity because no free electrons.
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In the structure of a graphite...
Each carbon atom is covantely bonded to three other carbon atoms and are arranged in sheets so they can easily slide over each other. This explains why graphite is soft. Covalent bonds need loads of energy to break=high melting point.
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What is ELECTROLYSIS?
Electrolysis is the breakdown of a substance using electricity. The process is used to extract reactive metals from their ores because they are too reactive to be extracted by heating with carbon.
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When a direct current is passed through a molten ionic compound...
positively charged ions are attracted towards the negative electrode and negatively charged ions are attracted towards positively charged ions.
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For example, in the electrolysis of molten lead bromine...
positively charged lead ions are attracted towards the negative electrode, forming lead (a metal). Negatively charged bromine ions are attracted towards the positive electrode forming bromine (a non metal).
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Name the properties of silicon dioxide
very hard structure, high melting and boiling point, insoluble in water, electrical insulator.
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What properties of silicon dioxide make it useful in sandpaper?
Silicon dioxide is useful when making sandpaper because it is abrasive and is mainly a strong rigid structure which is able to stratch steel.
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Which properties does silicon dioxide share with ionic compounds?
The properties of silicon dioxide are similar to ionic compounds because they are both strong rigid structures which have high melting and boiling points. In addition to this, they are both electrical insulators.
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Which properties does silicon dioxide share with covalent compounds?
Both of them are electrical insulators and both insoluble in water.
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Chemicals in the hydrosphere...
Hydropshere=oceans. Many of the compounds are ionic like salt. Solid ionic compounds form crystals. Can conduct electricity when dissolved or molten (because they are ionic compounds).
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Name properties of ionic compounds...
1. Ionic compounds are made of fully charged ions. Opposite charges attract each other which form a giant lattice of ions. 2. Many strong forces of attraction, which requires a lot of energy to break them. 3. High melting and boiling points.
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Chemicals in the lithosphere...
Lithosphere made up of many minerals including silicon, oxygen and aluminium. Silicon dioxide forms to a giant covalent structure. They are very hard with high melting points; never conduct electricty and are insoluble in water.
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Chemicals in the biosphere...
The biosphere exists in a thin zone of air, soil and water. Main elements include of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and small amounts of phosphorus and sulphur. These are all vital for life like proteins, vitamins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals.
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Name the products at the positive and negative electrodes in the electrolysis of aluminium oxide.
Positive electrode: oxygen. Negative electrode: aluminium.
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Aluminium has several uses like making saucepans, power lines and aeroplanes. Explain which properties of aluminium are important for these uses using your knowledge on metallic bonding on why it has these properties.
Aluminium used to make saucepans= good conductor heat and has a high melting point. Metals have high melting points due to the strong force of attractions in the lattice structure. Aluminium used in power lines= strong and conductor of electricity.
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Card 2

Front

What are the two minerals formed from pure carbon found in the lithosphere?

Back

Diamond and graphite.

Card 3

Front

The atoms within molecules are connected by strong covalent bonds. In a covalent bond...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In the structure of a diamond...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In the structure of a graphite...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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