C4b: Ionic Bonding

This item extends the ideas about atomic structure into ionic bonding and the properties of ionic compounds. The experimental investigation of solubility and electrical conductivity allows the opportunity to collect primary data safely and accurately, and to analyse it using quantitative and qualitative methods. 

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What is an ion?
A charged atom, or a group of charged atoms.
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Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when molten liquid?
Yes
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Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when solid?
No.
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Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when dissolved in water?
Yes
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What's the melting point of sodium chloride, and magnesium oxide?
NaCI - High (801 °C). MgO - Very high (2850 °C)
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Can magnesium oxide conduct electricity when solid?
No
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Can magnesium oxide conduct electricity when molten liquid?
Yes
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Can magnesium conduct electricity when dissolved in water?
Yes but not very soluble
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What sort of electronic structure to atoms with eight electrons on their outer shell have?
A stable one.
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How is an ionic compound formed?
When metals react with non-metals, electrons are transferred from the metal atoms to the non-metal atoms, forming ions. The resulting compound is called an ionic compound.
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Describe what happens in a reaction between a metal and a non metal
the metal atoms give electrons to the non-metal atoms. The metal atoms become positive ions and the non-metal atoms become negative ions.
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What force of attraction is there between oppositely charged ions? What is this called?
Strong electrostatic, and an Ionic bond.
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What is an electrostatic force of attraction?
A force which is generated by differences in electric charge.
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Working out a formula: Sodium chloride contains Na^+ and C^l– ions.
This is one positive charge and one negative charge, so the formula is NaCl.
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Working out a formula: Magnesium oxide contains Mg^2+ and O^2– ions.
This is two positive charges and two negative charges, so the formula is MgO.
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Working out a formula: Sodium oxide contains Na^+ and O^2– ions.
Two Na^+ ions will be needed to balance the two negative charges on the O^2– ion. The formula is Na˅2O.
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Working out a formula: Copper(II) nitrate contains Cu^2+ and NO˅3^– ions.
2 NO˅3^– ions are needed to balance the 2 positive charges on the Cu^2+ ion.The formula is Cu(NO˅3)˅2.brackets are needed cuz NO˅3^– is a compound ion(consists of more than 1 element)&we need more than 1.NaOH&Ca(OH)˅2 r correct but Na(OH)&CaOH˅2 rnt
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Two characteristics of Ionic compounds
High boiling and melting points.
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How are oppositely charged ions arranged?
In a regular way to form a giant ionic lattice. It is a 'lattice' because the arrangement is a regular one and 'giant' because the arrangement is repeated many times with large numbers of ions.
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What do ionic compounds often form?
Crystals.
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Why is the melting point of Sodium Chloride smaller than that of Magnesium oxide.
It has weaker ionic bonds,which need less energy to overcome.2 reasons-the Na+&Cl– ions in sodium chloride have fewer charges than the Mg2+&O2– ions in magnesium oxide,&Na+ ions are larger than Mg2+&cannot get as close to the negatively charged ions
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What does an ionic substance need to conduct electricity?
its ions must be free to move so that they can carry charge from place to place. Ions are free to move when an ionic compound is a molten liquid or in solution but not when it is solid.
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What is an atom with a full outer shell called?
A stable octet.
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Explain what an ionic lattice is, and it's charge.
Each ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions held in place by electrostatic attraction and forming an ionic crystal lattice. The number of ions in an ionic compound is such that the overall charge of a sample of the compound is zero
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What is the formula of magnesium chloride? Why?
MgCl2. Magnesium chloride consists of Mg2+ and Cl - ions. Twice as many chloride ions as magnesium ions are needed to make the substance neutral.
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How are the ions in a crystal lattice bonded? What can the ions not do? Why?
Strongly. The ions are held strongly in position so they cannot move and carry an electric current.
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How do you separate the particles in a crystal lattice? What else does this do?
Heat using a high temperature - will melt the crystal.
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What happens if an ionic compound is melted or dissolved in water?
The ions are free to move and so the substance can be electrolysed.
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Card 2

Front

Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when molten liquid?

Back

Yes

Card 3

Front

Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when solid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Can sodium chloride conduct electricity when dissolved in water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What's the melting point of sodium chloride, and magnesium oxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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