C4a: Atomic Structure

Atomic structure is fundamental to the study of chemistry. This item considers the sub-atomic particles and electronic structures. This item provides the opportunity to develop and use scientific theories, models and ideas. The item also includes how a scientific theory has developed. 

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What is an atom's nucleus surrounded by?
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What charge does a nucleus have?
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What charge does an electron have?
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What charge does an atom have?
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What mass and size do atoms have?
Very small mass and size.
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How is the number of protons represented on the periodic table?
By the Atomic number.
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How is the number of protons and neutrons represented on the periodic table represented?
By the mass number.
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What is an element?
An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom.
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What is a compound?
A thing that is composed of two or more separate elements.
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Which four scientists help to define the modern day atomic structure?
Dalton, J.J Thompson, Rutherford and Bohr.
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Briefly describe daltons atomic theory. (five points) (Atoms = A, C = Compounds)
All matter is made of A,A cannot be broken down into anything simpler,all the A of a particular element are identical&different from the A of other elements,A are rearranged in a chemical reaction,C are formed when 2 or more A join together
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Briefly describe JJ Thomson's discovery of the electron
JJ Thompson discovered the electron in 1897. This showed that the atom contained smaller pieces, whereas Dalton had thought that atoms could not be broken down into anything simpler.
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Briefly describe Rutherford's nuclear atom
In 1911 Ernest Rutherford used experimental evidence to show that an atom must contain a central nucleus. This was further evidence that an atom contained smaller pieces.
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Briefly describe Bohr's electron orbits
Niels Bohr further developed Rutherford's nuclear atom model. He used experimental evidence to support the idea that electrons occupy particular orbits or shells around the nucleus of an atom.
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What is a nucleus made up of?
Protons and Neutrons.
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What is the charge and mass of an electron
charge -1 and mass 0.0005 (zero)
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What is the charge and mass of a proton
charge 1 and mass 1
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What is the charge and mass of a neutron
charge 0 and mass 1
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Explain why an atom is neutral in terms of its sub-atomic particles
An atom contains equal numbers of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons, so it is neutral overall. This also means that the atomic number is the same as the number of electrons in an atom.
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Approximately what is an atoms radius and mass?
The radius of a typical atom is about 10^–10 m and its mass is about 10^–23 g
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What is an isotope?
A variety of an element, has the same atomic number but a different mass number. (Different number of neutrons)
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How are the elements arranged in the periodic table?
The elements are arranged in the periodic table in ascending order of atomic number so it's easy to find the name or symbol for an atom if you know the atomic number.
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What does the atomic number tell us?
the number of protons in an atom.
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What does the mass number tell us?
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
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How did the work of J.J. Thomson, Bohr and Rutherford contribute to the development of the theory of the atomic structure?
the theory changed as new evidence was found and a scientific explanation is provisional but may become more convincing when predictions based on it are confirmed later on
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What was the atom imagined as in an early model?
A sphere of positive charge with negatively charged electrons dotted around inside,rather like plums in a pudding.An experiment was carried out in 1905 to support this 'plum pudding' model of the atom but the results were unexpected
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Who designed an experiment to test the plum pudding model? Who carried out this experiment?
Rutherford, his assistants carried it out - Geiger and Marsden.
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Describe the experiment that Geiger and Marsden carried out.
A beam of alpha particles was aimed at very thin gold foil and their passage through the foil detected. The scientists expected the alpha particles to pass straight through the foil but something else also happened.
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Describe the results that Geiger and Marsden found from their experiment.
Some of the alpha particles emerged from the foil at different angles and some even came straight back. They realised that the positively charged alpha particles were being repelled and deflected by a tiny concentration of positive charge in the atom
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Describe the change that took place due to Geiger and Marsden's results
The plum pudding model was replaced by the nuclear model of the atom.
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What charge does a nucleus have?



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What charge does an electron have?


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What charge does an atom have?


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What mass and size do atoms have?


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