C4 Revision

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  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 13-06-16 18:21
Describe the nucleus.
1)Middle of atom.2)Contains protons and neutrons.3)Positively charged.4)Almost whole mass of atom is in nucleus.5)Tiny compared to rest of atom.
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Describe the electrons.
1)Move around nucleus.2)Negatively charged.3)Tiny but cover lot of space.4)Volume of orbits depends on atom size.5)Virtually no mass.6)Arranged in shells.7)Shells explain chemistry.
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What is the charge and mass of a proton?
Positive and 1.
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What is the charge and mass of a neutron?
No charge and 1.
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What is the charge and mass of an electron?
Negative and 0.0005.
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What is the charge of an atom?
Neutral as they have the same number of protons and electrons.
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What happens if an electron is added or removed?
The atom is become charged and is then an ion.
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Which part of an atom decides what element the atom is?
The protons.
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Why do elements have different properties?
Differences in atomic structure.
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True of False- Atoms aren't lost or created in chemical reactions?
True.
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What does the state symbol 's' stand for?
Solid.
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What does the state symbol 'l' stand for?
Liquid.
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What does the state symbol 'g' stand for?
Gas.
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What does the state symbol 'aq' stand for?
Dissolved in water.
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What colour flame does Lithium(Li) produce?
Red.
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What colour flame does Sodium(Na) produce?
Orange/yellow?
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What colour flame does Potassium(K) produce?
Lilac.
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Why are there different colours in fireworks?
Due to colours produced by different elements.
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Howcan coloured flames help us?
Helps scientists to identify element.
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What happens to the electrons of an atom when heated?
Electrons release energy as light-wavelengths recorded as a line spectrum.
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Why do different elements emit different wavelengths of light?
They all have different electron arrangements.
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What can line spectrum's be used to identify?
Elements.
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What is the technique used to look at spectrum's?
Spectroscopy.
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Which discoveries did spectroscopy lead to?
1)Caesium, Rubidium discovered by line spectrum.2)Helium discovered in line spectrum of the sun.
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Who are the three people that tried to organise elements?
Dobereiner,Newlands and Mendeleev.
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What did Dobereiner do?
1)In 1800's could only measure RAM.2)Known elements arranged in order of RAM.3)1828,Dobereiner put elements in groups of 3 based on properties.4)Middle element had average RAM of other 2.
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What did Newlands do?
1)Arranged into octaves as every 8th element had similar properties.2)Pattern didn't work on 3rd row.3)Presented work in 1865 to Chemical Society.
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Why was the work of Newlands criticised?
1)Groups contained elements with properties that weren't similar e.g. carbon and titanium.2)Mixed up metals and non-metals.3)Didn't leave gaps for undiscovered elements.
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What did Mendeleev do?
1)1869 arranged known elements into table-left gaps.2)Put elements in order of RAM-left gaps so vertical groups had similar properties.3)Gaps predicted properties of undiscovered elements-fitted pattern when found.
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What did scientists think when the periodic table was first released?
1)Didn't take it seriously-no evidence.2)When new elements discovered and fitted in Mendeleev's gaps, scientists approved.
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What are the elements in the modern periodic table arranged in order of?
Increasing proton number.
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What do elements with similar properties form?
Columns(called groups).
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What does the group number tell you?
How many electrons are in the outer shell(except group 0 which have 8).
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How can you calculate the number of neutrons?
By subtracting number of protons from the RAM.
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How many electrons can fit in the first shell?
2.
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How many electrons can fit in the 2nd and 3rd shells?
8 per shell.
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Why do atoms want to react?
Atoms like full outer shells but in most elements, outer shell isn't full.
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When are ions made?
When atoms lose or gain electrons.
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What can ions be made of?
Single atoms and groups of atoms.
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What ions do group 1 elements form?
Positive ions.
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What ions do group 7 elements form?
Negative ions.
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Explain ionic bonding.
1)Oppositely charged atoms are attracted to each other.2)Stick to atom with opposite charge-forming ionic bond.
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What elements are ionic bonds between?
Metal and non-metal.
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What do ionic compounds form?
A regular lattice.
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What does each lattice form?
A single crystal.
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What do ionic compounds do when they are molten are dissolved.Why?
They can conduct electricity as the ions are able to move.
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What do the charges in an ionic compound add up to?
Zero.
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What is the charge of a Sodium ion?
Na(+).
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What is the charge of a Potassium ion?
K(+).
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What is the charge of a Calcium ion?
Ca(2+).
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What is the charge of an Iron(II) ion?
Fe2+.
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What is the charge of an Iron(III) ion?
Fe(3+).
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What is the charge of a Chloride ion?
Cl(-).
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What is the charge of a Fluoride ion?
F(-).
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What is the charge of a Bromide ion?
Br(-).
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What is the charge of a Carbonate ion?
CO3(2-).
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What is the charge of a Sulfate ion?
SO4(2-).
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What is another name for group 1 of the periodic table?
Alkali metals.
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How many electrons do group 1 elements have in their outer shell?What does this mean?
1 electron means they're very reactive and have similar properties.
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What are alkali metals like when they are first cut?How do they change?
Shiny but react with oxygen in air and tarnish.
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What happens as you go down group 1?
1)More reactive-outer electron easily lost.2)Higher density.3)Lower melting point.4)Lower boiling point.
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What is made when alkali metals react with cold water?
Hydrogen gas and alkaline solution-hydroxide of metal forms.
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How can you test to see if hydrogen is produced?
Squeaky pop test.
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What is the reaction like if the alkali metal is more reactive?
The reaction is more violent.
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What happens when alkali metals react with chlorine?
React vigorously. Produces colourless salts e.g. sodium chloride,lithium chloride.
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What are the group 7 elements called?
The halogens.
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How many electrons are in the outer shell of group 7 elements?What does this mean?
7 electrons and that they are very reactive, gives them similar properties.
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Each atom from the halogens form a pair of atoms, what is this called?
Diatomic.
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What happens as you go down group 7?
1)Become less reactive-outer electrons far from nucleus.2)Higher melting point.3)Higher boiling point.
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Are halogens metal or non-metal?
Non-metal.
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What is fluorine like?
Very reactive, poisonous yellow gas at room temperature.
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What is chlorine like?
Fairly reactive, poisonous, dense green gas at room temperature.
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What is bromine like?
Dense,orange volatile liquid at room temperature, forms orange gas.
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What is iodine like?
Dark grey crystalline solid at room temperature or purple vapour.
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What is formed when the halogens react with the alkali metals?
Metal halides, become less vigorous down the group.
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What are halogen and iron reactions like?
Form colourless solids(iron halides).Less vigorous down the group.
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What is a displacement reaction?
When a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from a compound.
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What does it mean if a chemical is oxidising?Give an example.
Provides oxygen,allows materials to burn more fiercley. E.g. liquid oxygen.
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What does it mean if something is highly flammable? Give an example.
Catches fire easily. E.g. Petrol.
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What does it mean if a chemical is toxic?Give an example.
Can cause death by swallowing,breathing in or absorbing through skin.E.g. Hydrogen Cyanide.
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What does it mean if a chemical is explosive?Give an example.
Can explode.E.g. some peroxides.
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What does it mean if a chemical is corrosive?Give an example.
It attacks and destroys living tissues like eyes and skin.E.g. Concentrated sulfuric acid.
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What are safety measures needed when using alkali metals?
1)Stored in oil,need fire extinguisher.2)Can't handle with bare hands-react with sweat.3)Apparatus must be dry.4)Alkali solutions they form are corrosive, can't touch eyes or skin.
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What are safety measures needed when using the halogens?
1)Can't use fluorine in lab.2)Bromine is corrosive-no contact with skin.3)Poisonous vapours-need to be in fume cupboard.
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Describe the electrons.

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Card 3

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Card 4

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What is the charge and mass of a neutron?

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Card 5

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