C4 OCR Gateway B

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  • Created by: gmclaren
  • Created on: 14-11-15 19:33
What is the charge and mass of proton?
+1 and mass 1
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What is the charge and mass of neutron?
0 and mass 1
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What is the charge and mass of electron?
-1 and 0.0005 mass
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What does the atomic number represent?
The number of protons in the atom
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What does the mass number represent?
The number of protons and neutrons
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If the number of protons in an atom is 6, how many electrons are there? Why?
There are six electrons because the number of protons in an element are the same as electrons
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What is an isotope?
Where the atom has an extra neutron
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What were the four main points of Daltons theory?
All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms can not be broken down into anything simpler. Atoms are rearranged in chemical reactions. Compounds are formed where two or more atoms are joined.
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What did Thomson discover?
Atoms could be broken down into smaller pieces
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What did Rutherford discover?
Atoms have a central nucleus
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What did Bohr discover?
Electrons orbit in shells around the nucleus
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How are ions formed?
When atoms lose or gain electrons
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What charge do atoms that lose electrons have?
Positive
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What charge do atoms that gain electrons have?
Negative
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Do Group four atoms lose or gain electrons, why?
Neither because they covalently bond
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What is an ionic bond?
A strong attraction between ions
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How does ionic bonding work?
An electron from an outer shell of an element transfers over to the other element
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What is sodium chloride's melting point?
High
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What is magnesium oxide's melting point?
Very high!
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What is a giant ionic lattice?
Oppositely charged ions joined together
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Why is the melting point lower for Sodium chloride than for magnesium oxide?
Because the bond are stronger between magnesium oxide than sodium chloride, this is because magnesium oxide has more charges than sodium chloride
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How do you conduct electricity in an ionic substance?
You melt the substance, so that the electrons are free to move and carry the charges
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What is covalent bonding?
A shared pair of electrons
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How is this different to ionic bonding?
In ionic bonding the atoms lose and gain electrons, however in covalent bonding the atoms share a pair of electrons
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How are periods ordered?
How any shells are occupied by electrons
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How are groups ordered
How many electrons occupy the outer shell
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What was so unique about Mendeleev's periodic table?
He left gaps for elements
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How did Meneleev group elements?
By their similar properties
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Can covalent compounds conduct electricity?
No because they have no free electrons
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How high is a covalent compounds melting point?
It is very low because although they are joined by strong covalent bonds they have weak forces joining them
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What are group one elements known as?
Alkali metals
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Why are group one elements so unstable?
Because they only have one electron to lose
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What is the word equation for group one?
Metal + Water -> Metal hydroxide + hydrogen
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What happens to the boiling point as you go down the group?
It gets lower and lower
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Where must group one elements be stored and why?
Under oil to stop them from reacting with water and air
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What happens to the reactivity as you get further down the group and why?
It gets higher, because the atoms get larger and because the electrons get further and further away from the nucleus
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What is group one an example of? (oxidation or reduction) and why?
Oxidation because they lose an electron
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What are group seven referred to?
Halogens
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What are the uses of Chlorine?
Sterilizing water
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What are the uses of Bromine?
Making plastics and pesticides
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What are the uses of Iodine?
Sterilizing wounds
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What is displacement?
In a reaction, where the less reactive element is replaced with the more reactive element, for example pottasium bromide + chlorine -> pottasium chloride + bromine
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Do group seven become more or less productive as they go down?
Less
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What is group seven and example of? (oxidation or reduction) and why?
Reduction because it gains an ion
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What is the trend with boiling point in group seven?
The boiling point gets higher
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Where are transition metal in the periodic table?
In the middle
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What are six properties of transition metals?
They conduct heat and electricty, they form positive ions when they react with non-metals, they have a high density, they are hard and tough, they make coloured compounds, they react slowly with water, air and acid and they have a high melting point
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What is thermal decomposition?
A substance is broken down into two other substances by heat
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How does thermal decomposition occur in transition metals?
When a soluble transition metal compound is mixed with sodium hydroxide, the sodium is the more reactive compound so it displaces the metal. This produces a transition metal hydroxide.
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What is a transition metal hydroxide?
A precipitate - insolouble
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What are five useful properties of metal?
Lustrous, hard, high density, high tensile strength, high melting and boiling points and good conductors of heat and electricty
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What is metallic bonding? And how strong is it?
Metallic bonding is the bonds that hold a metal together, these are really strong and need a high melting or boiling point to break
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What happens when a potential difference is applied to metals?
All of the delocalised electrons move together, allowing an electrical current through
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What is a 'sea of delocalised electrons'?
The free electrons in metals that allow them to conduct electricty
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What are superconductors?
They are metals that have no electrical resistance when they are put under low temperatures
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What are two benefits of superconductors?
Super fast electronic circuits and powerful electromagnets
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What is one drawback of superconductors?
They only work under very cold conditions
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List four water resources
Lake, river, reservoirs, aquifers
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How does nitrate pollute water?
It washes off fields and into water, it is very soluble in water so it is hard to get out
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How does lead pipes pollute water?
Lead pipes are still used in old houses, but poisonous lead compounds dissolve into water over time
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How does pesticides pollute water?
They wash into rivers
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What are the three steps of water purification?
Filtration - Water is sprayed into specially layered sand stop any insoluble materials going through. Sedimentation - A chemical is added causes tiny solid particle to clump together, this is then filtered out. Chlorination - chlorine gas kills any m
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What test is used to find sulfate ions in water?
A precipitation reaction between barium chloride and sulfate takes place, producing an white precipiatate
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What test is used to find haldie ions in water?
A precipitation reaction between silver nitrate and halide ions takes places, producing a cream precipitate
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How does distillation work?
The water is boiled to get rid of any unwanted chemicals
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Card 4

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Card 5

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