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What are the ALKALI metals on the Periodic Table?
The alkali metals (Group 1 on the Periodic Table) are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, ceasium and francium. They go in order from least reactive to most reactive.
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Name some properties of the ALKALI metals
Alkali metals differ from other metals because they have low densities, can be cut easily and produce an alkali reaction with water. They are kept in OIL because they can oxidise in the air, and this prevents them from reacting with oxygen.
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The more reactive the alkali metal...
the less the melting and boiling point they have which is why the melting and boiling point of alkali metals go down the higher the period number (Group 1).
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Properties of lithium include of...
shiny grey, soft can be cut, less dense than water, when burnt produces a pink colour, when reacting with water it makes lithium hyrdoxide + hydrogen and turns the water purple.
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Properties of sodium include of...
very shiny grey, softer than lithium can be cut, less dense than water, when burnt it produces a large orange flame, when reacting with water it produces sodium hydroxide + hydrogen and makes the water turn light purple. More vigorous reaction.
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Propeties of potassium include of...
very very shiny grey, softer than lithium and sodium can be cut, less dense than water, produces lilac flame when burnt, when reacted with water it produces potassium hydroxide + hydrogen and little sparks. Water no colour change more vigorous reacti
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What are SALTS?
A salt is the compound of metals and non metals. Chlorides of lithium, sodium and potassium are all salts.
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What are the HALOGENS?
The Halogens are Group 7 of the Periodic Table. Their properties include of being toxic and corrosive, reactivity DECREASES down the group, low melting and boiling points (break easily) but increases down the group, brittle when solid.
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What should you do when testing for whether an iodine is a non metal?
Make a simple circuit and connect to iodine crystal, if the bulb does not light up it IS a non metal. If the opposite happens it IS a metal, Halogens easily become gasses therefore have weak bonds with other molecules.
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Common safety precautions for handling hazardous chemicals are as follows...
1. wear gloves and eye protection, and wash hands after handling chemicals. 2. use safety screens 3. use small amounts and low concentrations of chemicals. 4. not eating or drinking when working with chemicals.
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What are IONS?
Ions are atoms that gained or lost electrons. As the number of protons and electrons are no longer equal, ions have an overall charge.
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What is IONIC BONDING?
Ionic bonding occurs between a metal and a non-metal. Electrons transfer from one atom to another to form electrically charged ions: atoms that lose electrons=positively charge. atoms that gain electrons=negatively charge.
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What happens to ionic crystals that dissolve in water?
They conduct electricity. Ionic compounds can do this because the charged ions are free to move around.
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Is the nucleus of an atom positively or negatively charged?
The nucleus of an atom is POSITIVELY charged because protons and electrons have opposite charges which are attracted to each other. Neutrons have NO charge.
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What is the atomic number?
The atomic number is teh number of protons in an atom. The elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in order of atomic number.
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What is the mass number?
The mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
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What is electronic configuration?
Electronic configuration is how the electrons are arranged in an atom. It can be shown as numbers or on a diagram.
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Explain lithium's electronic configuration
The electronic configuration for lithium is written as 2.1 (showing that lithium contains three electrons, two in the first shell, one in the second shell).
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How do ions form?
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms either lose or gain electrons. As the numbers of protons and electrons are no longer equal, ions have an overall charge.
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What is ionic bonding?
Ionic bonding is when a metal reacts with a non metal, electrons transfer from one atom to another to form electrically charged ions. Atoms lose electrons=positive charge. Atoms gain electrons=negative charge.
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What is the nucleus of an atom?
It is in the middle of an atom and contains protons and neutrons. It also has a positive charge. Almost the whole mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.
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What are the electrons?
They move around the nucleus and are negatively charged. They are arranged in shells around the nucleus.
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What are the relative masses and charges of protons, neutrons and electrons?
Proton: relative mass=1 charge=+1 Neutrons: relative mass=1 charge=0 Electrons: relative mass=0 charge=-1
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What technique used to produce line spectrums?
Spectrosopy
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How many electrons are found in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shell of an atom?
1st=2 electrons 2nd=8 electrons 3rd=8 electrons
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What happens when you react an alkali metal with a halogen?
They form salts called metal halides. Some include sodium chloride, potassium bromide and lithium iodide.
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Card 2

Front

Name some properties of the ALKALI metals

Back

Alkali metals differ from other metals because they have low densities, can be cut easily and produce an alkali reaction with water. They are kept in OIL because they can oxidise in the air, and this prevents them from reacting with oxygen.

Card 3

Front

The more reactive the alkali metal...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Properties of lithium include of...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Properties of sodium include of...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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