C3-Chemicals in our lives

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What are tectonic plates?
The earth’s crust is cracked into a number of large pieces called tectonic plates
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What do tectonic plates float on?
The mantle
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How much do tectonic plates move per year?
A few cm relative to each other
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What happens when the tectonic plates move away from each other?
The exposed mantle rises up through the seafloor and solidifies to form a new crust
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Why does the earth’s oceanic crust have patterns of normal polarity and reversed polarity magnetised rock?
About every half a million years the earth’s magnetic field swaps direction so the rocks have either normal polarity or reversed polarity when they cool
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What can the patterns of the normal or reversed polarised rocks be used for?
To estimate the age of the different parts of the earth’s crust and track the movement of the tectonic plates
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List 3 processes by which minerals are formed
By sedimentation, evaporation and erosion
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What is food preservation?
Something that is added to foods to give them a longer life before mould or bacteria acts on them making them uneatable
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How does salt act a food preservative?
When added to meat, it dries out the absorbing water from it and any bacteria cells. This kills the bacteria and preserves the meat
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What is the health issues involved with the use of salt?
Too much salt can cause high blood pressure, increased chance of stomach cancer, renal failure
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Name 3 products of brine electrolysis
Chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide
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Give 3 uses of chlorine
Disinfectants, plastic, bleach
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How is bleach made?
By reacting chlorine with sodium hydroxide
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Name 2 toxic chemicals that can be used in large scale brine electrolysis
Mercury and asbestos
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Why is chlorine added to water supplies?
It kills disease causing microorganisms, prevents the growth of algae, gets rid of bad taste and smells and removes discoloration
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What are the disadvantages of chlorinating water?
Liquid chlorine on the skin and eyes causes severe chemical burns. Accidents when chlorinating water could be serious or fatal
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What is an alkali?
A compound that forms hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
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What does an acid and alkali react to form?
Salt and water (neutralisation reaction)
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What does an acid and hydroxide react to form?
Salt and water
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What does an acid and a carbonate react to form?
Salt, water and carbon dioxide
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Name 3 chemicals that are alkalis
Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium carbonate
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What are the products of the reaction between calcium carbonate and sulphuric acid?
Calcium sulphate, water, carbon dioxide
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Why are alkalis added to some soils?
Some soils are acidic and so alkalis are used to neutralised the soils as crops need neutral soil to grow
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What happens when chemicals like DDT get into the rivers?
DDT can’t be excreted, so it accumulates and the otter ends up with a lot of the DDT collected by the other animals when it eats eels
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What does LCA stand for?
Life cycle assessment
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What are the 4 stages that need to be considered when doing an LCA?
Choice of material, manufacture, using the product and product disposal
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do tectonic plates float on?

Back

The mantle

Card 3

Front

How much do tectonic plates move per year?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when the tectonic plates move away from each other?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why does the earth’s oceanic crust have patterns of normal polarity and reversed polarity magnetised rock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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