C3: Chemical Economics

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  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 24-04-14 16:20
What is an exothermic reaction?
A reaction that gives out energy (as heat), bonds are forming
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What is an endothermic reaction?
A reaction that takes in energy (as heat) from the environment, bonds are breaking
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What is the equation for energy transferred?
Energy transferred = mass * SHC * temperature change
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Energy given out per a gram?
Energy given out per a gram = E released / Mass burned
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Name two ways of following a reaction
Do reaction on mass balance or measure the volume of gas given off
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Name 2 things which increase rate of reaction based upon collision theory
Increase in collision frequency,increase in number of succesful collisions
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Why does a catalyst increase rate of reaction?
Gives a surface for the reactant particales to stick to, decreasing energy needed for succesful collisions, which therefore increase number of succesful collisions which increases rate of reaction
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How do you calculate masses in reactions?
1. Write out the balanced equation 2. work out the Mr of the two chemicals you want to know about 3. Divide to get 1 then multiply to whatever you want to work out.
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What is the equation for atom economy?
atom economy = (total Mr of desired product / total Mr of all products) * 100
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Name 3 reasons why high atom economy is good
Less waste, more sustainable, profitable - less raw materials needed.
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What is the equation for % yield?
% yield = (actual yield [g] / predicted yield [g]) * 100
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Name 4 reasons why % yield never = 100%
Evaporation, not all reactants react (reversible reactions), filtration, transferring liquids.
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Name 2 advantages of batch production
Flexible - lots of different products can be made with the same equipment and low start-up cost
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Name 2 disadvantages of batch production
It's labour intensive and hard to keep a constant quality
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Name 3 advantages of continuous production
production never stops, runs automatically and the quality is very consistent
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Name 2 disadvantages of continuous production
Very expensive start-up costs and it isn't cost effective to run it at anything less than full capacity
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What are the 3 main stages of producing a pharmaceautical drug and why does this make them expensive?
R+D - needs highly paid scientists, Trailling - time consuming and has meet specific legal requirements, Manufacture - labour intensive, raw materials are expensive and there are high energy costs.
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Name 5 properties of diamond
Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds, very hard (due to bonds), high melting point, lustrous and colourless and doesn't conduct electricity (no free electrons)
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Name 4 properties of graphite
3 covelent bonds per a carbon, form 'sheets' which can slide, high melting point and can conduct electricty as has lots of delocalied electrons
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What are fullerenes?
Molecules of carbon shaped into closed tubes or hollow balls
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an endothermic reaction?

Back

A reaction that takes in energy (as heat) from the environment, bonds are breaking

Card 3

Front

What is the equation for energy transferred?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Energy given out per a gram?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name two ways of following a reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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