C3

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What is the Earth's surface made up of?
Tectonic Plates
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At what speeds do the Earth's tectonic plates have at per year?
A few cm per year
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At what point does the crust become magnetised?
As soon as it is formed
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How often does the Earth's magnetic field swap direction?
Every half million years or so
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What does it mean for rocks when the Earth's magnetic field swaps direction?
The rocks will either have normal polarity or reversed polarity
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How can the polarity of rocks be used to estimate the age of different parts of the Earth's crust?
Scientists can look at the patterns of normal and reversed polarised rocks
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What else can the pattern of normal and reversed polarised rocks do?
They can be used to help track the very slow movement of tectonic plates
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What are the three features of sedimentary rock that geologists look at to learn about the environment in which they were formed?
Fossils; shells and ripples and the shape of the grains
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How do geologists use evidence of fossils to learn about the environment in which they were formed?
Fossils tell you about the age of the rock and the conditions it was formed.
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Give an example of what a geologist could learn about from a fish fossil
Fish cannot form above ground, therefore fish are formed underwater.
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What do ripples on a rock tell you?
That the rock was formed underwater, therefore it must have been formed in a sea or river
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What is the difference between the shape of grains found in sedimentary rock?
Rock formed underwater will contain water-borne grains; rock formed on the surface will contain air-blown grains
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What does the Earth's crust contain?
Minerals
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List the 5 processes of how minerals are formed in the Earth's crust.
Sedimentation, Dissolving, Evaporation, Erosion and Mountain Building
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Where do chemical industries tend to grow up?
Where useful mineral resources can be found nearby.
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What type of rock is 'Limestone'?
A sedimentary rock
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What colour is Limestone?
Grey/White
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What does limestone mostly consist of?
Calcium Carbonate
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What are sedimentary rocks formed from?
Layers of sediment laid down in lakes or seas
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Where does this sediment come from?
The shells and bones of sea creatures OR the erosion of pre-existing rocks
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Define 'Erosion'
The natural weathering of large pieces of rock by the rain and wind
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What does erosion create?
Tiny particles of sediment
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What happens to these tiny particles of sediment?
They are washed away and end up at the bottom of the sea or lake
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How is the sedimentary rock formed?
The layers of sediment get buried under more layers, and the weight pressing down squeezes out the water. Fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural mineral cement that hold particles together; forming rock
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How long does this process take?
Millions of years
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Give another example of a sedimentary rock.
Coal
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What colour is coal? and what is it mainly made up of?
Black and Carbon
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How is coal formed?
the fossilisation of layers of plant matters
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How are the hardest types of coal formed?
When coal deposits are put under high pressures and temperatures (eg. in mountain building)
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What is salt extracted from in the UK?
Underground deposits
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How were these underground deposits formed?
When ancient seas containing dissolved salt evaporated. The salt that was left behind was buried and compressed by other layers of sediment
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Where are massive deposits of rock salt mainly found?
Cheshire and Teeside
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What is 'Rock Salt'?
A mixture of salt and impurities
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Explain the process of Normal Salt Mining
Rock salt is drilled, blasted and dug out and brought to the surface using machinery
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What is rock salt obtained through normal mining usually used for?
Gritting roads
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Explain the process of Solution Mining?
Water is injected into the salt deposit through the 'outer pipe', which dissolves the salt to make a saltwater solution called brine. Pressure forces brine up through inner pipe. Brine stored in wells on surface. Pumped to refining plant.
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What happens to salt in a refining plant?
Impurities are removed from the brine here, then pumped into containers. The brine is boiled to make the water evaporate- leaving salt behind.
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What is salt obtained from solution mining primarily used for?
Table salt
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How else can salt be obtained?
From the sea
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How can salt be obtained from the sea?
Seawater flows into built shallow pools and is left to evaporate in the sun, leaving the salt behind.
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Which method produces the purest salt?
Obtaining it from the sea
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What are the environmental impacts of both mining types (give 2)
1) Land above mines can collapse into holes (Subsidence) - can affect buildings nearby. 2)Mining uses a lot of energy which comes from burning fossil fuels; using up finite resources and causing pollution
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How can subsidence be reduced?
Leaving well-supported caverns in mines (e.g. supported by pillars of rock.)
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Name the 2 uses of salt within the food industry
1) Enhances flavour 2) Used as a preservative
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What are the issues with salt in the food industry? (Give 2)
1) Eating too much can cause high blood pressure - leading to strokes and heart attacks 2) Eating too much can increase the chance of osteoporosis, stomach cancer and renal failure
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

At what speeds do the Earth's tectonic plates have at per year?

Back

A few cm per year

Card 3

Front

At what point does the crust become magnetised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How often does the Earth's magnetic field swap direction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does it mean for rocks when the Earth's magnetic field swaps direction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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