C3 Chemistry

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  • Created on: 11-06-16 15:42
How would you test for Ca2+ ions?
Forms a white precipitate with sodium hydroxide
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How would you test for Cu2+ ions?
Forms a blue precipitate with sodium hydroxide
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How would you test for Fe2+ ions?
Forms a green precipitate with sodium hydroxide
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How would you test for Fe3+ ions?
Forms a brown precipitate with sodium hydroxide
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How would you test for Al3+ ions?
The white precipitate redissolves in excess sodium hydroxide
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How would you test for ammonium ions?
When heated, it gives off ammonia which smells like cat urine. Ammonia will turn UI paper purple or damp red litmus paper blue
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How would you test for Cl- ions?
Add nitric acid, then add silver nitrate. White precipitate of AgCl = Cl-
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How would you test for Br- ions?
Add nitric acid, then add silver nitrate. Cream ppt of AgBr = Br-
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How would you test for I- ions?
Add nitric acid, then add silver nitrate. Yellow ppt = I- ions
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How would you test for sulphate ions?
Add hydrochloric acid then add barium chloride. White ppt of barium sulphate = sulphate ions
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What is Avagadro's Constant?
6.023*10^23 (always the number of atoms in one mole)
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What is a mole?
6.023*10^23 atoms
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When you have 1 mole, what is the mass in grams equal to?
The Ar or the Mr
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Mass =
Number of moles * Mr
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Concentration (mol/dm^3) =
Mass concentration / Mr
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Concentration (g/dm^3) =
Mole concentration * Mr
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Which two cations does hard water contain?
Ca2+ and Mg2+
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What does hard water make when it reacts with soap?
A ppt called scum
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What are the two kinds of hard water?
Temporary and permanent
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How can temporary hardness be removed?
Boiling
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What is limescale?
CaCO3 (e.g. on the bottom of a kettle)
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How can permanent hardness be removed?
With an ion exchange resin. The resin contains lots of Na or H ions and exchanges them for the Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions running through them
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What is a titration reaction?
Accurately measuring how much of an alkali you need to neutralise an acid or vice versa
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What indicator should be used in a titration reaction?
Phenolphthalein
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In an acid, what colour is phenolphthalein?
Colourless
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In an alkali, what colour is phenolphthalein?
Pink
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What are the 3 main pieces of apparatus used in a titration?
Conical flask, burette and graduated pipette
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What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons (OIL RIG)
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What is reduction?
The gain of electrons (OIL RIG)
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In the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, which electrode are sodium ions attracted to?
Cathode (-ve)
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At the cathode of electrolysis of sodium chloride, what type of reaction occurs?
Reduction
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What is the half equation for what happens at the cathode in the electrolysis of NaCl?
Na+ + e- --> Na
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What is the half equation for what happens at the anode in the electrolysis of molten NaCl?
2Cl- --> Cl2 +2e-
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Give 2 uses of sodium
Street lamps and as a coolant in some nuclear power stations
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What is the electrolyte in the electrolysis of molten NaCl?
NaCl
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Why is electrolysis of solutions different from that of molten ones?
It contains other ions such as H+
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What extra ions are there in the electrolysis of solutions?
H+ and OH-
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What 4 ions are present in the solution of NaCl?
Na+, Cl-, H+ and OH-
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What kind of ion is discharged at the anode?
Simplest
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Which of these is the simplest, Cl- or OH-?
Cl- (contains less atoms)
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Which of these is more likely to get discharged at the anode, OH- or SO4(2-)?
OH- (contains less atoms)
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When will metals get discharged at the cathode?
When they are less reactive than hydrogen
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Which one of these is going to be discharged at the cathode, Na+ or H+
H+
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In the electrolysis of aqueous NaCl, which two ions are left at the bottom of the solution?
Na+ and OH-
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What charge does the cathode have?
Negative
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What charge does the anode have?
Positive
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What is an anion?
A negatively charged ion
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What is the half equation for hydrogen at the cathode?
2H+ --> H2 + 2e-
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How can Cu that has been extracted from its ore by reduction be purified?
Electrolysis
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How is pure Cu obtained using electrolysis?
The cathode starts off as thin Cu. The anode has the impure lump attached and the electrical flow rips Cu2+ ions off and attracts them to the cathode where they are discharged and pure Cu is formed
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Where do the impurities go from the Cu lump at the anode?
Fall to the bottom as sludge
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What is the half equation for copper at the cathode?
Cu2+ +2e- --> Cu
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What is the half equation for copper at the anode?
Cu --> Cu2+ +2e-
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What will happen to the mass of the anode?
Decreases
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What will happen to the mass of the cathode?
Increases
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How would you find out how much copper has been purified?
Weigh the cathode before and after (and after it has dried)
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Where will the copper ions be dissolved?
The anode
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Where will the copper ions be deposited?
The cathode
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What is electroplating?
Applying a metal coating to an object (e.g. by electrolyissi)
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Where will the copper ions be dissolved?
The anode
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Where will the copper ions be deposited?
The cathode
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What is electroplating?
Applying a metal coating to an object (e.g. by electrolyissi)
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Where will the copper ions be dissolved?
The anode
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Where will the copper ions be deposited?
The cathode
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What is electroplating?
Applying a metal coating to an object using electricty (e.g. by electrolysis)
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Give 2 uses for electroplating
Decoration and prevention of corrosion
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In electroplating, what is the cathode?
The object you are going to electroplate (coat in metal)
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In electroplating, what is the anode?
Usually a bar of the metal that will be used for the electroplating
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What is Avagadro's Law?
"One mole of any gas occupies 24dm^3 at RTP"
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What is RTP?
Normal Room Temperature and Pressure
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Volume of gas (dm^3) =
(Mass / Mr) * 24 (or simplify, Vol = No of moles * 24)
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What is a reversible reaction?
A reaction where the products of a reaction can react together to form the original reactant again. (= goes both ways)
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What is dynamic equilibrium?
When reactions are still taking place but there is no overall effect in changing the amount of product or reactant
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What is the symbol for a reversible reaction?
Looks like the train station symbol
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Give two things that the position of equilibrium depends on
Pressure and temperature
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What is the advantages of altering the pressure and temperature?
You can move to position of equilibrium, giving you more product
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All reactions are _(1) in one way and _(2) in the other. (Fill the blanks)
1 = exothermic. 2 = endothermic
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How can raising temperature and pressure result in less product being made?
The equilibrium might be reached too early so less product would be made (equilibrium moved position)
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Which type of reaction would be favoured if you raised the temperature?
Endothermic (to use up the heat)
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Which type of reaction would be favoured if you lowered the temperature?
Exothermic (to give out heat)
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In the Haber process, is the forward reaction exothermic or endothermic?
Exothermic
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If you raise the pressure in a reversible reaction, which reaction will it favour?
The one that produces less volume (in Haber this is forward)
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If the lower the temperature, which reaction will be favored?
The one that produces more volume (in Haber, this is reverse)
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What is something else, other than temperature and pressure that can speed up the rate of reaction?
Using a catalyst
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What catalyst is used in the Haber process?
Iron
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What is the equation for the reaction to form ammonia?
N2 + 3H 2NH3
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Where do we get the nitrogen from for the Haber process?
Fractional distilation of air
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Where does the hydrogen come from?
Natural gas
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At what pressure is the Haber process carried out?
200 pressures
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What temperature is used for the Haber process?
450C
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Why is a pressure greater than 200 pressures not used?
The container would be too expensive to build and maintain
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Why would increasing the temperature reduce the amount of NH4 produced?
The forward reaction is exothermic so increasing the temperature would move the equilibrium in the wrong direction (towards ammonia and away from N2 and H2). The yield would be greater at lower temperatures
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Why is a really low temperature not be used?
The rate of reaction would be too slow so it would not be economically worthwhile to produce
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In which state is ammonia formed?
Gas (and then it condenses in the condenser into a liquid)
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Give a use of ammonia
To make nitrogenous fertilisers which increases plant growth and therefore increases crop yields.
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What is a disadvantage of using nitrogenous fertilisers?
Eutrophication
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What is a homologous series?
A group of similar compounds with an affixed functional group and the same general formula
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What things are similar within a homologous series?
Chemical properties, physical properties,
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Give 4 examples of a homologous series?
Carboxylic acids, alcohols, alkanes and alkenes
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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What is the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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What is the functional group of alcohols?
-OH
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What is the general formula for alcohols?
CnH2n+1OH
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What are the prefixes for 1, 2, 3 and 4 carbon atoms?
1= meth 2= eth 3= prop 4= but (methethpropbut)
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What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?
-COOH
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What is the general formula for carboxylic acids?
CnH2n+1COOH
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What do the names of alcohols end in?
"...(an)ol"
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What do the names of carboxylic acids end in?
"...anoic acid"
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Which of these contains a double bond: alcohols, alkanes, carboxylic acids and alkenes?
Carboxylic acids and alkenes
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How can ethanol be made?
Fermentation with yeast
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What is the word equation for fermentation to produce ethanol?
Glucose --> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
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What is the balanced symbol equation for fermentation to produce ethanol?
C6H12O6 --> 2C2H50H + 2CO2
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How can ethanol be concentrated?
Fractional distillation
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What kind of cells are used to ferment the glucose?
Yeast cells
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What is a liebig condenser?
A cooler that has water flowing through it
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Which has a lower boiling point, ethanol or water?
Ethanol (so it boils off first in the fractionating column then condenses in the Liebig)
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Give 1 pro and 1 con of fermentation
Fermentation uses renewable energy sources. Con = It's expensive to then purify it because the quality from fermentation isn't great
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Ethene + water -->
Ethanol
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Give 2 reasons why alcohol is bad for the body
Reducing brain activity = car crash. Dehydration, damaging brain cells and liver cells (liver cirrhosis)
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Give 2 reasons why alcohol is bad for society
Public violence. Alcoholism = family breakdown = housing crisis. Irresponsible sex without condoms = STDs and accidents. Drink driving = crash = kills innocent others. Costs government in A&E costs
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What can ethanol be dehydrated into?
Ethanol
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How is ethanol dehydrated?
It is passed over a hot aluminium oxide catalyst
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What is vinegar?
Ethanoic acid
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When is ethanoic acid produced?
If beer or wine is left open on the side and becomes oxidised
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Ethanol + Oxygen -->
Ethanoic acid (vinegar) + water
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Carboxylic acid + metal -->
Metal salt + hydrogen (like any other acid)
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What is added onto the end of a salt of a carboxylic acid?
"ate" (e.g. ethanoate)
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What functional group to esters have?
-COO
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Alcohol + carboxylic acid -->
Ester + water
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What catalyst is used to produce esters?
Acid
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Give 2 uses of esters?
polyesters in fabric, flavouring and scents in perfumes
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What are polyesters?
Polymers of esters
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Give 2 uses of polyesters
Make plastic bottles. Make fabric clothing
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What are soaps made up of?
Esters and alkali
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What are fats and oils?
Esters
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What two parts do soap molecules have?
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts
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What charge do soap molecules have?
Negative (so they're anions)
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How does soap work?
The hydrophobic "tail" inserts into oil (chain of hydrocarbon/carboxylic acids) and the hydrophilic head pushes it upwards to remove the dirt
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What does the food industry do to vegetable oil?
Hydrogenate them
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Which is more viscous, saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated
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What is a saturated molecule?
Contains a double bond
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How are vegetable oils saturated in the food industry?
The double bond is broken and replaced by hydrogen with a nickel catalyst.
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What kind of reaction is hydrogenation of vegetable oils?
Catalytic hydrogenation
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What can polyunsaturated vegetable oils be hydrogenated to make?
Margerine. Not all the double bonds are broken so it's still firm enough to spread on toast
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What is fat?
An oil that is solid at room temperature
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What does catalytic hydrogenation do to unsaturated oils?
Saturates them by breaking the double bond and adding hydrogen, using a nickel catalyst.
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Card 2

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How would you test for Cu2+ ions?

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Forms a blue precipitate with sodium hydroxide

Card 3

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How would you test for Fe2+ ions?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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How would you test for Fe3+ ions?

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Card 5

Front

How would you test for Al3+ ions?

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