C3- Chemicals in Our Lives

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  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 18-05-16 19:37
How much do tectonic plates move per year?
few cm per year.
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Explain how rocks become magnetised.
When mantle rises and solidifies, forms new crust. When crust formed, it's magnetised by Earth's magnetic field.Every half million years, field swaps direction. Rocks either have normal or reversed polarity when cooled.
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What do fossils tell us about rocks?
Age of rock, conditions under which it was formed. E.g. fossil of fish show it was formed underwater.
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How can you tell if a rock was formed above sea level or underwater.
Rocks underwater often contain shells or ripples on it. Shapes of grain in rock- if there are water-borne grains, formed underwater. Air blown grains=surface.
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What are different ways minerals can be formed?
Sedimentation, dissolving, evaporation, erosion and mountain building.
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Where do chemical industries tend to start up?
Where useful minerals are found nearby, e.g. north west England where there's limestone,coal and salt.
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What is limestone?
A sedimentary rock formed from sea shell, mostly consists of calcium carbonate.
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How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Layers of sediment laid down in seas or lakes. Sediment comes from shells and bones of sea creatures.
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What is erosion?And how is rock formed by erosion?
Natural weathering of large pieces of rock by rain and wind.Over millions of years, sediment buried-water squeezed out. Natural mineral cement holds particles together to form rock?
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Describe coal.
Type of sedimentary rock. Black, mainly carbon. Made over millions of years. Some coal very hard formed under high temp and pressure-e.g. mountain building.
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Where is salt found?
Underground salt deposits.
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Where are massive rock salt deposits in the UK?
Cheshire and Teeside.
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What is rock salt?
Mixture of sale and impurities.
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What are the two ways rock salt can be extracted?
Normal mining and solution mining.
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Describe normal salt mining.
1)Rock salt drilled, blasted, dug out, brought to surface.2)Most rock obtained this way used on roads,lowers freezing point of water to -5 degrees, gives grip on unmelted ice. 3)Also used to flavour food and make chemicals.
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Describe solution mining.
1)Water injected into deposit.2)dissolves salt to make brine.3)Pressure forces brine to surface.4)Brine stored in wells and pumped to refining plant.5)Impurities removed, pumped to containers,Water evaporated.6)For table salt and chemical production.
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What is the impact of both types of salt mining on the environment?
1)Subsidence(Mines collapse).2)Risk of subsidence reduced by leaving well supported caverns in mines,3)Mining needs lots of energy-from fossil fuels. Produces pollution.
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What is another way salt can be obtained?
Evaporating seawater, done in hot countries. Method produces purest salt, almost 100% sodium chloride.
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What are uses of salt in the food production?
1)Refined salt used to enhance flavour in most processed foods.2)Preservative.
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What are health issues of salt?
1)High blood pressure. 2)Eating too much salt may increase risk of stomach cancer. 3)Not easy to track amount of salt you eat.
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What is GDA?
Guideline Daily Amount, shows how much salt should have per day, food labels show percentage of daily intake.
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What are the functions of the department of health and the department of environment,food and rural affairs?
1)Carry out risk assessments for chemicals in food-make sure safe.2)Advise public on how food affects health.
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Why do food manufacturers still include salt in products?
1)Expensive to reformulate recipe. 2)May not taste as good or last as long.
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What chemicals does electrolysis of brine cause to split?
Hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide.
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What is chlorine used for?
Disinfectants, killing bacteria(swimming pools and water supply),Bleach,plastics,hydrochloric acid(HCL) insecticides.
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What is hydrogen used for?
Make ammonia,change oils into fats for making margarine, used as a fuel in fuel cells and for welding and metal cutting.
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What is sodium hydroxide used for?
it's a strong alkali: soaps, ceramics, organic chemicals,paper pulp, oven cleaner, household bleach.
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How is bleach made?
By reacting chlorine with sodium hydroxide.
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What is the environmental impact of electrolysis of brine?
1)Needs lots of energy-comes from fossil fuels, releases CO2 uses up finite resources.2)Mercury is toxic chemical used in electrolysis plants, may contaminate water.3)Asbestos used in industrial electrolysis-can cause lung cancer.
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Why is chlorine an important part of water treatment?
1)kills disease-causing microorganisms.2)If right amount added, enough bacteria to kill bacteria later on in pipes.3)Prevents algae, bad tastes and removes discolouration.
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Explain what water conditions are like around the globe compared to Britain.
WHO(world health organisations) and UN think 1 billion people don't have clean water.In developing countries, clean water expensive. 1.8 million die a year of waterborne disease e.g.cholera,typhoid.
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How can chlorine be made?
1)chlorine found in salt(sodium chloride) and hydrogen chloride(HCL) has to be separated.2)Properties of elements different to compounds,3)Although chlorine may kill, compounds with chlorine may not.4)Made by oxidation of HCL or brine electrolysis.
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What are disadvantages to chlorinating water?
1)Water contains organic compounds (e.g. decomposition of plants) chlorine reacts to make chlorinated hydrocarbons-cancer causing.2)Chlorine gas harmful, irritates respiratory system.Liquid chlorine causes severe chemical burns.
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What is an alkali?
Compound that forms hydroxide ions (OHminus) when dissolved in water.
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What is made when acids and alkalis react?
Salt and water, called neutralisation reaction.
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What does an acid and hydroxide reaction produce?
Salt and water.
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What does an acid and a carbonate reaction produce?
Carbon dioxide, a salt and water.
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Give a list of things alkalis are used for.
Neutralise soil, make chemicals that allow natural dyes to bind to cloth. Convert fats and oils into soap. Manufacture glass
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What are traditional sources of alkalis?
Burnt wood and stale urine.
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What did the first process for manufacturing an alkali use?Why was it bad?
Limestone (calcium carbonate) and salt (sodium carbonate).
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Give a list of products that can be made using chemistry.
Drugs,paints and dyes,acids and alkalis, bleach and toiletries, agricultural chemicals,plastics,metals,fuels.
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Explain how some chemicals can lead to accumulation (use DDT as example).
1)Chemicals sprayed on crops to kill creatures, also toxic to other creatures. If insecticide seeps into river, will build up in food chain which could lead to death of animal at end of food chain.
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How can plasticisers harm the environment?
1)PVC very common polymer contains carbon, hydrogen, chlorine.Plasticisers called PCB's used to make more fire resistant PVC for electric wires.2)PCB's toxic may leak into water and can accumulate.
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What is an LCA?
Life cycle assessment, looks at all stages of life of a product, works out potential environmental impact.
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Explain choice of material in a life cycle assessment.
1)Most chemical manufacture needs water.2)Metals must be mined and extracted from ores.causes pollution.3)Raw materials often come from crude oil-non renewable.Obtaining and refining crude oil needs lot of energy-pollution,
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Explain manufacture in a life cycle assessment.
1)Manufacturing products uses lot of energy and other resources.2)Can cause pollution e.g.CO or HCL.3)Need to think about waste products,how to dispose.4)Some waste can be recyled, turned to other chemicals.
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Explain using the product in a life cycle assessment.
1)Paint gives off toxic fumes.2)Burning fuels releases greenhouses gases and other harmful substances.3)Fertilisers can leach into streams-damage ecosystems.
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Explain product disposal in a life cycle assessment.
1)Products disposed at landfill site. 2)Takes up space and pollutes land and water e.g. paint washes off and goes into water.3)Products may be burned-polluton
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Explain how rocks become magnetised.


When mantle rises and solidifies, forms new crust. When crust formed, it's magnetised by Earth's magnetic field.Every half million years, field swaps direction. Rocks either have normal or reversed polarity when cooled.

Card 3


What do fossils tell us about rocks?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How can you tell if a rock was formed above sea level or underwater.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are different ways minerals can be formed?


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