C3 Chemical economics [2]

Why is the percentage yield never 100%?
Because the predicted yield doesn't take into account the wasted reactants.
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What does atom economy show?
Percentage of the desired product out of the whole mass of the reactants.
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Why do industries want a high atom economy?
To reduce the unwanted products and make the process sustainable.
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What happens during an endothermic reaction?
Bond are broken.
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How can energy show whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic?
The beginning of a reaction is always endothermic because bonds need to be broken, the second part if the reaction is exothermic because bonds need to be made. The difference between the energy show is it was an endo/exothermic reaction.
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How can the energy released by 1g of fuel be found?
Measure 1g of the fuel, pour 100g of water into a copper calorimeter, heat the water with the fuel, meausure the temperature rise.
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What happens during the batch process?
A fixed amount of the chemical is made and stored until needed, the chemical will have a sell by date. The batch process is easy to make the chemical when it is needed and change the production. Therefore it is used for medicine.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the continuous process?
Advantages: cost per tonne cheap/ no wasted energy. Disadvantages: inefficient, high initial building cost.
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Describe why medicines are so expensive.
It takes 10 years for medicines to be developed and tested - many compounds are made. Raw materials are often rare and expensive.
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Explain the development of drugs.
Thousands of compounds are tested and then used on living tissue. Long-term trails are then carried out on humans to find any side effects. Similar compounds are tested for no side effects and then recommended doses are researched.
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What is an allotrope?
A different structure of the same element.
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Fullerenes are carbon structures. What can they be used for?
Carry deliver drugs/trap dangerous substances.
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Give two examples of giant covalent structures.
Diamond and graphite.
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Why is diamond a good material to make cutting tools and jewellery?
It can reflect light and it has a high melting/boiling point.
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Diamond has a specific structure, what properties does this give it?
The bonds make the diamond hard and lots of energy is needed to break them. No free electron means no electricity can be conducted.
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Graphite has a specific structure, what properties does this give it?
It has strong bond giving it a high melting/boiling point. Delocalised electrons means it can conduct electricity and when force is applied the substance will slide.
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What properties does a giant covalent structure give a material?
High melting and boiling point, hard, easy to cut (if bonds in same layer), if no free electron it does not conduct electricity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does atom economy show?

Back

Percentage of the desired product out of the whole mass of the reactants.

Card 3

Front

Why do industries want a high atom economy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens during an endothermic reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can energy show whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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