C3 - Chemical Ecomonics

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Define rate of reaction. How can you tell when a reaction is over?
How fast the reactants are changed into products (reaction is over when one of the reactants is completely used up).
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What are the four factors that affect the rate of reaction?
Temperature, Catalyst, Surface Area, Concentration (or pressure for gases).
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How does increasing the temperature affect the rate of reaction?
Rate of reaction increases.
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How does decreasing the concentration/pressure affect the rate of reaction?
Rate of reaction decreases.
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If the surface area is increased, how is the rate of reaction affected?
Rate of reaction increases.
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What is the relative formula mass of a substance? How is it found?
Equal to one mole of that substance. Found by adding together all of the atomic masses in the compound.
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Explain conservation of mass.
During a chemical reaction, no atoms are destroyed or created. This means that there are the same number of atoms on each side of a reaction equation.
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What is the equation to find the mass using moles?
mass = formula mass x number of moles (m = Mr x n)
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What is percentage yield?
Shows the overall success of an experiment.
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What is the equation for percentage yield?
Percentage yield = (actual yield / predicted yield) x 100
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Why do industrial processes want as high a percentage yield as possible?
To reduce waste and lower costs.
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What are the main factors that decrease the yield?
Evaporation, filtration, transferring liquids, other products are made.
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What is atom economy?
Shows how much of the mass of the reactants is wasted when manufacturing a chemical.
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What is the equation for atom economy?
Atom economy = (formula masses of desired products / formula masses of all products) x 100
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What does a 100% atom economy show?
All atoms in the reactants have been turned into useful products.
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What is an exothermic reaction? Give an example.
Gives out energy, more bonds are being made than broken e.g. burning fuels (combustion)
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What is an endothermic reaction? Give an example.
Takes in energy, more bonds are broken than made e.g. melting ice cubes.
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What is calorimetry used for?
To find out how much energy different fuels give out?
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Explain how calorimetry is used to find how much energy a fuel gives out.
Measure amount of water used and record temp, put spirit burner filled with fuel under calorimeter (weigh fuel before) and light wick, blow flame out after a 20C temp change, record temp of water, weigh burner again, use energy equation.
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What is the equation to find the amount of energy transferred in Joules?
mass of water (g) x SHC of water (J/gC) x temperature change (C)
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What is the equation to find the energy given out per gram?
energy transferred (J) / mass of fuel burned (g)
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What process is used to produce a bulk chemical?
Continuous.
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What process is used to produce a speciality chemical?
Batch.
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What are the advantages of continuous production?
high rate of production, rare shut down times, small workforce needed, low cost factory, easy to automate process.
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What are the disadvantages of continuous production?
High cost of factory equipment.
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What are the advantages of batch production?
Low cost of factory equipment.
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What are the disadvntages of batch production?
Low rate of production, frequent shut down times, large workforce needed, not easy to automate process, high cost factory.
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Explain how to extract chemicals from plants.
Crush plant material to break cell wall, dissolve in suitable solvent and filter to remove insoluable solids, boil to evaporate solvent, separate chemical by chromatography.
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What contributes to the cost of a new drug?
Research and development, trialling, manufacture.
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Why is it necessary to check if a drug is pure?
To ensure that no harmful chemicals enter the body as the drug will become damaging rather than beneficial.
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What does lustrous mean?
Having a shiny surface.
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What is a lubricant?
A substance that helps moving parts slide over each other more easily.
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What is an allotrope?
When an element exists in more than one form.
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What is a delocalised electron?
An electron that is free to move through a structure.
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What is a covalent bond?
A shared pair of electrons.
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What are the main properties of diamond?
Lustrous, insoluable in water, hard, high melting point, doesn't conduct electricity.
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What are the main properties of graphite?
Lustrous, soft, high melting point, conducts electricity.
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What are diamond and graphite allotropes of?
Carbon.
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What is diamond used for and why?
A cutting tool as it is hard and has a high melting point.
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What are graphite's main uses?
Lubricant, pencil lead, electrodes in electrolysis.
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What aspect of the structure of dimond makes the melting point so high?
Each carbon bonds to 4 other carbon atoms, joined by very strong covalent bonds, lots of energy needed to break them.
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Why can diamond not conduct electricity?
Because there are no free moving electrons.
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Why is graphite used in pencils?
It is arranged in layers with weak intermolecular forces between them, meaning they can easily slide over each other.
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What are fullerenes?
Molecules of carbon shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls.
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Why would fullerenes be useful for delivering medicine?
For slow release as the fullerene structure forms around another atom or molecule, which is then trapped inside.
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What is a nanotube?
Many fullerenes joined together to form tiny, hollow carbon tubes.
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Why would nanotubes make good industrial catalysts?
They have a large surface area.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the four factors that affect the rate of reaction?

Back

Temperature, Catalyst, Surface Area, Concentration (or pressure for gases).

Card 3

Front

How does increasing the temperature affect the rate of reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does decreasing the concentration/pressure affect the rate of reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

If the surface area is increased, how is the rate of reaction affected?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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