C3 AQA

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What is the appearance of Group 1 metals?
soft solid, which a knife can easily cut through
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What is the density of Group 1 metals?
low density
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What is the appearance of transition metals?
hard, darker solids
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What is the density of transition metals?
High density
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What is the appearance of Group 1 metal compounds?
white solids that dissolve in water to form colourless solutions
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What is the appearance of transition metal compounds?
coloured solids
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How reactive are group 1 metals with Oxygen and Water?
Extremely reactive (they have to be stored under oil)
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How reactive are transition metals with Oxygen and Water?
Fairly unreactive
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What is the pattern of reactivity down group 1?
increasing reactivity ( due to a larger atomic radii, more shielding between layers and more negative electrons to repel the electrons to be lost) as there is less attraction between the electron to be lost and the positive proton at the centre.
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What is the pattern of reactivity down group 7?
decreasing reactivity ( due to a larger atomic radii, more shielding between layers and more negative electrons to repel the electron to be gained) as there is less attraction between the electron to be gained and the positive proton at the centre.
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What did Newland contribute to the periodic table?
the 'law of octaves' a periodic pattern of physical properties every 7 elements
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Why did people not accept Newland's periodic table at first?
he was the first to organise elements in some kind of 'group' , he put metals and non metals together, some boxes had more than one element, elements with dissimilar properties were together
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What did Mendeleev contribute to the periodic table?
he predicted undiscovered elements, he ordered elements into clear groups, he moved some elements out of the mass number order, to put elements with similar properties together
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Why did people not accept Mendeleev's periodic table at first?
he put non metals and metals together, it was 'incomplete' due to the gaps, elements with dissimilar properties were together
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What coloured state is chlorine at room temperature?
yellow gas
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What colour and state is Fluorine at room temperature?
yellow gas
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what colour and state is Bromine at room temperature?
Brown liquid
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what colour and state is Iodine at room temperature?
Purple solid
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How is good drinking water produced?
1. Microstrainers and sand filters are used to remove solids. 2. chlorine gas is added to sterilise the water, and fluorine gas is added to prevent tooth decay.
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What do water filters contain?
silver = antibacterial , 'activated carbon' = to remove taste, Ion exchange resins = to remove hardness
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How does boiling temporary hard water remove hardness?
Ca(HCO3)2 --> CaCO3 (calcium which was causing water hardness removed as a solid precipitate) + CO2
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What is the chemical name for washing soda?
Sodium Carbonate
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How does washing soda remove hardness?
Ca + NaCO3 --> CaCO3 (solid precipitate, Ca no longer in water) + Na
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What is the equation for the combustion of Hydrogen?
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
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What are the advantages of Hydrogen as a fuel?
It is efficient, it could be sourced from the sea (abundant supply) , water vapour is only waste product, renewable, non-toxic
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What are the disadvantages of Hydrogen as a fuel?
It is expensive, doesn't work in conventional engines, a lot of energy (from fossil fuels) is used to produce it, it is difficult to store and transport
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How is Hydrogen (for the Haber process) obtained?
Cracking of oil fractions, or from reacting steam with natural gas
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How is Nitrogen (for the Haber process) obtained?
Burning Hydrogen in air (to produce H2O with the O2 in air) , leaves the Nitrogen in air behind
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What are the 3 physical properties of alcohols?
1. they are colourless liquids which dissolve in water to form colourless, neutral solutions. 2.they can be burnt in air to produce energy, CO2 and H2O. 3.They react with Sodium to produce Hydrogen and a salt
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What is the equation for the combustion of ethanol?
C2H5OH + 3O2 --> 2CO2 + 3H2O
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What is the process which turns ethanol into ethanoic acid?
oxidisation of ethanol
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How can ethanol be oxidised?
By adding chemical oxidising agents, or by the action of microbes aerobically respiring
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What are the properties of Carboxylic acids
1. dissolve in water to form (weak- due to the H+ ions only partially disassociating) acids 2.react with carbonates to form a salt, CO2 and H2O 3.react with all alcohols to form esters (in presence of acid catalyst)
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what are esters used for?
Cosmetics, perfumes and flavourings (as they have 'fruity' smells)
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What is the alcohol functional group?
-COH
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What is the carboxylic acid functional group?
-COOH
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What is the ester functional group?
COO- (carbon chain broken up)
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Card 2

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What is the density of Group 1 metals?

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low density

Card 3

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What is the appearance of transition metals?

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Card 4

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What is the density of transition metals?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What is the appearance of Group 1 metal compounds?

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