C3 - Allotropes of carbon and nanochemistry

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What is an allotrope?
Different structures of the same element
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What are some examples of allotropes of carbon?
Diamond, graphite and fullerenes
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What are fullerenes?
Carbon structures that form spheres or tubes
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What can fullerenes be used for?
To carry and deliver drug molecules around the body, to trap dangerous substances in the body and remove them
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How many carbon atoms does buckminsterfullerene contain in a sphere?
60. Each sphere is so small it is measured in nanometres.
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What do the carbon atoms do in diamonds?
Every carbon atom is covalently bonded to four others in a three-dimensional tetrahedral lattice with the outer shell electrons being shared
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What do the carbon atoms do in graphite?
They covalently bond to three others in flat hexagonal layers. This formation leaves an unshared outer shell electron. The separate layers are only weakly attracted to each other.
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What are the properties of diamonds?
Strong covalent bonds in all directions make diamond hard. Large amounts of energy are required to break the bonds, giving a high melting point of 3350 degrees celsius. An absence of free electrons, meaning diamond does not conduct electricity
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What are the properties of graphite?
The strong covalent bonds give graphite a melting point similar to diamond. The delocalised electrons make it a good electrical conductor. When force is applied, the weak forces between the layers slide over eachother
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What is a substance if the bonds in it are formed in different directions?
It is a hard substance
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What is a substance if the bonds in it are formed in layers?
It will be easy to cut in slices
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What is a substance if there are no free electrons?
The substance will not conduct electricity
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What will any substance with millions of very strong fixed bonds have?
A high melting point
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What is a nanotube?
a tubular molecule composed of a large number of carbon atoms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are some examples of allotropes of carbon?

Back

Diamond, graphite and fullerenes

Card 3

Front

What are fullerenes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can fullerenes be used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many carbon atoms does buckminsterfullerene contain in a sphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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