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Early 1800s how was periodic table arranged
By atomic mass, or Physical and Chemical properties. (Had no idea about atomic structure). Patterns arose periodically.
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Newlands' Law of Octaves
Every 8th element had similar properties, so listed in rows of 7.
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3 problems with N.L.O
Groups contained elements that didn't have similar properties, mixed up metals and non metals, didn't leave gaps.
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Mendeleev did what
put elements in atomic mass but left gaps in order to keep elements with similar properties in same groups and left see very big gaps.
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GROUP 1 TRENDS
AS GO DOWN... 1) More reactive, 2) Lower melting/boiling points. [N.B. Alkali metals have low density.]
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Reasons why reactivity will increase/decrease in Group 1 or 7.
1) Further from nucleus electron is, lesser attraction. 2) Electron shielding
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GROUP 7 TRENDS
1) LESS REACTIVE 2) HIGHER MELT 3) HIGHER BOIL
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Fluorine is
very reactive poisonous yellow gas
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Cl is
Fairly reactive poisonous dense green gas
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Br is
dense poisonous red brown volatile liquid
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Iodine
dark grey crystalline solid or purple vapour
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Diatomic molecules
Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer
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Transition metals often have
more than 1 ion e.g. Fe(II) or Fe(III)
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Fe 2 colour
green
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Fe 3 colour
red/brown
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Transition metals are
colourful! :D
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Colour depends on
Elements in compound
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4 Properties transition metals
1) Good conductors 2) Dense, strong, shiny 3) Less reactive than group 1 4) Denser, stronger, harder than group 1 and have high melting points
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Transition metals make good _____
catalysts
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Explain how water becomes hard
Dissolved Group 2 ions in it as it passes over rocks. Cann precipitate out in insoluble compounds.
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Scale =
magnesium/calcium carbonate
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Scum =
(Ca2+/Mg2+) + Stearate Ions
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SOFT WATER =
WATER WITH GROUP 1 SALTS. LITTLE SOAP TO FORM LATHER.
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HARD WATER PERM
CA/MG SULFATE -- CANNOT BE THERMALLY DECOMPOSED
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HARD WATER TEMP
CA/MG Hydrogen Carbonate - Thermally decomposes. Ca(HCO3)
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Calcium Hydrogen Carbonate thermally decomposes to
Water CO2 CaCO3
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Disadvantages of hard water:
1) Produces scum 2) More detergent required for lather 3) Limescale makes appliances less efficient so more energy so more expensive.
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Benefits of hard water
Strong teeth, bones, and reduces risk of heart disease.
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Rocks dissolve when
water is evaporated and CO2 in air dissolve in water forming carbonic acid.
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Water from reservoirs goes to water treatment works and goes through...
1) Mesh screen to remove big bits like twigs 2) Chemicals added to make microbes stick together 3) Filtered through gravel beds to remove solids 4) Chlorinated to kill harmful microbes
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Add sodium carbonate to temp hard water
Precipitates out Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions to form insoluble carbonates.
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Ion Exchange Column
1) Resin with H and Na 2) Water passed through Na/H exchanged with Ca/Mg. [IS A CONTINUAL CYCLE AND IONS NEED TO BE REPLACED WHEN USED UP]
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exothermic =
1) Energy required to break bonds less than energy released when new are made
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endothermic =
energy required to break bonds is greater than energy released when bonds are formed
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Catalysts:
Provide alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy
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Change in enthalpy
REACTANTS ENERGY - PRODUCT ENERGY
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Increasing pressure favours the side with
fewer moles
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Raising temperature
endothermic reaction will increase
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decrease temperature
exothermic will increase
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Ammonia equation
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
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Nitrogen taken from
air
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hydrogen taken from
natural gas
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Hater process pressure
200atm
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Hater process Temp
450C
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Catalyst
Iron
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Pressure set as high as possible to give best yield
without making plant too expensive to build e.g. over 1000 atm
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Increasing temp moves equilibrium wrong way
so yield would be greater at lower temperatures. 450 is compromise between maximum yield and rate of reaction.
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General formula alcohol
Cn H2n+1 OH
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Similar properties of first 3 alcohols
1) Flammable, burn in air to produce CO2 and H2O 2) Dissolve completely in water to form neutral solutions 3) React with sodium to give hydrogen and alkoxides 4) Ethanol drinks
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Use of alcohols
solvents to dissolve things mix wit oils and water. Methylated spirit used to clean paint brushes and as fuel. Alcohols used as fuel in spirit burners. Sugar cane produce ethanol.
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Functional group of Carboxylic acid
-COOH
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Names
MEPB....anoic acid [OH-C=O]
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Carboxylic acid
React with carbonates to produce CO2 and Water
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Salts formed from Carboxylic acid
end in Ethanoate e.g. Sodium ethanoate (Ethnic acid + sodium carbonate --> CO2 H2O and Sodium ethanoate)
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Carboxylic acids dissolve in water to produce
acidic solutions. When they dissolve they ionise releasing H+ which makes it acidic. They don't completely ionise just form weak acidic solutions. They have higher pH than strong acids with same concentration.
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Ethanoic acid produced by
OXIDISING ethanol [yeast cause ethanol to ferment]
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ethanol + oxygen ->
etahnoic acid + water
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Carboxylic acid uses
1) Soaps and detergents 2) Preparation of esters 3) Very good solvent for organics, but makes solution acidic.
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Esters have functional group
COO (O-C=O)
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Names end in
-oate
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Alcohol forms first part of name, acid forms second part e.g.
methanol + propanoic acid --> methyl propanoate + water
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Esters
have pleasant smells, sweet and fruity, but also are volatile, ideal for perfumes
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Many esters are
flammable
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Esters do not
mix with water well, but do mix well with alcohols and organic solvents
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Uses
1) Perfumes 2) Flavourings and aromas 3) Ointments 3) Solvents
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recall titration calculations
N / C * V [N.B USE DM^3]
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Hydrogen and oxygen
give out energy when react to form water - not a pollutant
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H2 and O2 reaction is
exothermic, releasing energy.
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Use of H2
Hydrogen fuel cell or combustion engine
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Define fuel cell
electrical cell thats supplied with fuel and oxygen and uses energy to generate electricity
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Why H2 fuel cells won't take over conventional means
Its a gas so takes up more space than liquid e.g. petrol, explosive so difficult to store safely, hydrogen fuel itself made from hydrocarbons or by electrolysis of water (using fossil fuels to make electricity)
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LI+ ION FLAME
crimson
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NA+ ION FLAME
yellow
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K+ ION FLAME
lilac
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Ca2+ ION FLAME
red flame
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Ba2+ ION FLAME
green flame
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Clean wire loop
into sample of compound and put wire loop on clear blue part of bunsen flame. Dip into HCl first and rinse with distilled water.
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Precipitates with NaOH colours:
Many metal hydroxides are insoluble and precipitate out of a solution when formed.
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METAL
PRECIPITATE COLOUR
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CA2+
WHITE
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Copper II
blue
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Iron II
green
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Iron III
brown
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Aluminium III
White at first then redissolves in excess NaOH to form colourless solution
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Mg
White
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Carbonate test
Test for CO2 and limewater change
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Halide tests
Add dilute Nitric acid followed by silver nitrate
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CL
white (silver chloride)
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Br
cream (Silver bromide)
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I
yellow (silver iodide)
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Sulfate ions test
add HCl followed by barium chloride and white precipitate of barium sulphate means original compound was sulfate
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Newlands' Law of Octaves

Back

Every 8th element had similar properties, so listed in rows of 7.

Card 3

Front

3 problems with N.L.O

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mendeleev did what

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

GROUP 1 TRENDS

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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