C3

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What mineral deposits does Britain have?
Coal, limestone and salt.
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Where were these deposits of minerals discovered? What did this lead to?
In the north west of England. Led to the development of a successful chemical industry there.
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What are examples of processes that can support geologists suggestions on how the Earth has changed?
Mountain building, erosion, sedimentation, dissolving, evaporation.
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What do geologists use magnet clues in rocks to do?
To track the very slow movement of the continents over the surface of the Earth.
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Where were rocks that now make up Britain formed?
In different climates.
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What are the clues found in sedimentary rocks that suggest how they were formed?
Fossils and presence of shell fragments, ripple patterns on sediments that settled on the bottom of the sea or a river, the shape of water-borne grains compared with air blown grains.
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What is continental drift?
Where the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's surface are moving, but very slowly. They are dragged by convection currents in the mantle beneath them.
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What is the theory of continental drift supported by?
The continents we see today seem as though they might have once fitted together. Similar rocks have been found on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
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What is salt (sodium chloride) used for?
Used in food industry, as source of chemicals, to treat icy roads in winter.
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Why is salt added to food? What are the affects of too much salt in in your diet?
Is added as a flavouring and a preservative. Too much salt = can lead to high bp and other circulatory conditions.
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What is the food standards agency (FSA)? What does the FSA have a role in?
Is an independant food safety watchdog. Has a role in carrying out risk assessments on chemicals in food, advising public about the effect of food on health.
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How can salt be obtained?
By evaporating seawater or from solid eposits in the ground.
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How can underground salt deposits be extracted?
Mining the solid (aka rock salt), pumping water into salt deposit and extracting solution of salt (brine).
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When is salt used for roads more useful?
If it's extracted as a soid mixed in with grit and sand.
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What may salt be if it is to be purified for the chemical or food industry and why?
May be more efficient to extract it as a solution as this will leave insoluble minerals behind.
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How can extracting salt affect the environment?
Dissolving underground salt deposits using water can lead to ground above subsiding and buildings possible collapsing. Salt waste can affect plants and animals by drying them up, through the process of osmosis.
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What have alkalis been used for for many years?
Neutralising acidic soils, making chemicals that bind dyes to cloth, making soaps from fats and oils, making glass.
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What were alkali extracted from in the past?
Burnt wood or stale urine.
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In what period of time were more alkalis needed?
During the industrial revolution in the 19th century.
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What are soluble hydroxides and carbonates and therefore what do they do?
They are alkalis and will therefore neutralise acids
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What is the affect on the environment from the first process for making alkali from salt and limestone, using coal as a fuel?
Lots of acidic hydrogen chloride gas was released, large waste heaps were made, the waste heaps decomposed to release toxic and foul smelling hydrogen sulfide gas.
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What can some of the waste products be turned into?
Useful materials. E.g. hydrogen chloride can be oxidised to make chlorine.
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How are chlorine, hydrogen and sodium hydroxide now extracted?
From brine (salt water) using electrolysis.
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When does electrolysis occur?
When an electric current is used to split up a liquid or dissolved compound (called the electrolyte).
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Why is the environmental impact of the industrial electrolysis of brine carefully monitored?
Chlorine=toxic Sodium hydroxide=corrosive Hydrogen=flammable
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What is sodium hydroxide and what is it used for?
Is an important alkali and a corrosive substance. Used to make soaps, detergents, paper and textiles, also used as a domestic drain cleaner.
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What is hydrogen, what is it used for and what will it be used for?
Hydrogen is a flammable gas. Used in processing hydrocarbon fuels, making margarine and making ammonia in the Haber process. Will be used as a clean fuel in the future.
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What is chlorine and what is it used for?
Is a toxic gas, can be used as a bleach or to kill bacteria in drinking water-this has controlled many diseases in humans around the world.
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Why are some people concerned about the possible disadvantages of adding chlorine to drinking water?
Chlorine might react with organic (carbon based) chemicals in the water to produce small amounts of harmful chemicals.
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What can chlorine also used to make and what are the potential problems this could cause?
Can be used to make the polymer PVC, which is often plasticized. Over time plasticized molecules can leach out and harm the environment.
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What are some reasons why chemicals can be very dangerous?
They last in the environment for a very long time, can be carried long distances in atmosphere,river and oceans, can acculmulate in the food chains and animal tissues.
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What is often estimated when assessing the risk of using a chemical?
The chance of being hurt and the severity of the consequences if someone is hurt.
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When are people often more likely to take risks?
When the effects are short lived rather than long time, and when they have a choice about using a chemical, rather than being forced to use it.
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What are the four phases of a life cycle assessment (LCA)?
Making the material from natural raw materials, manufacture, use, disposal.
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What is each part of the life cycle assessed for?
Its environmental impact by the amount of energy and resources that will be used, and how materials will be obtained and disposed of.
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What is the purpose of an LCA?
To help find the most sustainable method so that current needs are met without damaging resources for the future.
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What factors must be considered when assessing the making of the material from natural raw materials in a LCA?
Energy needed and environmental impact of converting raw materials into useful materials, e.g. crude oil into plastic
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What factors must be considered when assessing the manufacture of a product in a LCA?
Resources and energy to make product. The environmental impact of making the product from the material.
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What factors must be considered when assessing the use of a product in a LCA?
Energy needed to use the product, e.g. electricity. Energy and chemicals needed to maintain the product. Environmental impact.
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What factors should be considered when assessing the disposal of a product in an LCA?
Energy needed to dispose of the product. Environmental impact of landfill, incineration and recycling.
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What are the energy requirements asessment questions for the making of the materials from natural substances for a uPVC window frame?
How much energy would be needed... to drill and distil the oil? to produce chlorine by electrolysing seawater? for polymerisation?
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What are the environmental impact assessment questions for the making of the materials from natural substances for a uPVC window frame?
How much oil will be taken from natural reserves? What is the risk of spillage during transportation? What is the effect of leaked oil on the atmosphere and ecosystem?
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What are the energy requirements assessment questions for the manufacture of a uPVC window frame?
How much energy would be needed.. to mould the window frame? to transport the materials between stages?
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What are the environmental impact assessment questions for the manufacture of a uPVC window frame?
What pollutants and waste materials are produced during manufacture and transportation?
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What are the energy requirement assessment questiosn for the use of a uPVC window frame?
How much energy would be needed to keep the window frames clean?
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What are the environmental impact assessment questions for the use of a uPVC window frame?
How will the product be transformed between the factory and home? What will be the effect of the new window frame on the energy efficiency of the house and the amount of fossil fuel burned to keep the house warm?
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What are the energy requirement assessment questions for the disposal of a uPVC window frame?
How much energy would be used or recovered if the window frame was recycled/incinerated/thrown away?
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What are the environmental impact assessment questions for the disposal of a uPVC window frame?
Would incineration produce pollutants or toxic gases?What is the effect of plasticizers leaching out of the PVC+into the environment if thrown away?What is the energy value of plastic if incinerated?How much landfill space will the product take up?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where were these deposits of minerals discovered? What did this lead to?

Back

In the north west of England. Led to the development of a successful chemical industry there.

Card 3

Front

What are examples of processes that can support geologists suggestions on how the Earth has changed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do geologists use magnet clues in rocks to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where were rocks that now make up Britain formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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