C2b: Construction Materials

Most landscapes include buildings such as houses, factories, flats or skyscrapers. Many of these buildings are made from raw materials found in the Earth or on the Earth’s surface. The removal of the raw materials and their use has an enormous impact on the environment.

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Name four rocks used in the construction of buildings and roads.
Granite, limestone, marble and aggregates.
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Why are there environmental problems when rocks are quarried or mined from the ground?
Landscape is destroyed and has to be reconstructed when the mining or quarrying has finished, it also increases noise, traffic and dust.
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Give two forms of calcium carbonate.
Limestone and marble
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What happens to limestone when it thermally decomposes?
It produces calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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How is concrete made?
Cement, sand, aggregate and water are mixed together - the mixture is then left to set.
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What element reinforces concrete?
A steel support
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Describe how concrete can be reinforced using a steel support.
A steel support is made by joining steel bars or cables together and this is then usually surrounded by a mould. Concrete is poured into the mould, where it fills the gaps in the steel support and sets hard.
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Aluminium is a construction material - which substance in the Earth's crust is it manufactured from?
Metal obtained from ores
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Brick is a construction material - which substance in the Earth's crust is it manufactured from?
Clay
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Clay is a construction material - which substance in the Earth's crust is it manufactured from?
Sand
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Iron is a construction material - which substance in the Earth's crust is it manufactured from?
Metal obtained from ores
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Compare the hardness of limestone, marble and granite.
Granite is much harder than marble, which is much harder than limestone.
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Why do granite, marble and limestone have different hardness?
Because limestone is a sedimentary rock, marble is a metamorphic rock and granite is igneous rock.
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Talk about what makes sedimentary rocks
Limestone is mostly formed from seashells. It's mostly calcium carbonate and a grey/white colour. The original shells are mostly crushed, but there can be quite a few fossilised shells remaining.
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What two ways can metamorphic rocks can be formed?
From other rocks or from limestone.
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Talk about igneous rocks
Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools, they contain various different minerals in randomly arranged interlocking crystals - this makes them very hard.
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What is thermal decomposition?
When one substance chemically breaks down into at least two new substances when it's heated
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Talk about the formation of sedimentary rocks.
They are formed from layers of sediment laid down in lakes or seas. Over millions of years the layers and the weight pressing down squeezes out the water. Fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural mineral cement.
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Talk about metamorphic rocks formed from other rocks.
The action of heat&pressure on sedimentary(or even igneous)rocks over long periods of time.Mineral structure&texture may be different,but chemical composition is often the same.So long as the rocks don't actually melt,they're classed as metamorphic.
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What may happen if rocks melt and turn to magma?
They may eventually resurface as igneous rocks
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Talk about how marble is formed?
Marble is another form of calcium carbonate. Very high temperatures and pressures break down the limestone and it reforms as small crystals. This gives marble a more even texture and makes it much harder
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What can granite be used for?
Steps and buildings.
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What is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of limestone?
calcium carbonate = calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
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What is the balanced symbol equation for the thermal decomposition of limestone?
CaCO˅3 → CaO + CO˅2
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How is cement made?
By heating powered limestone and clay
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What sort of material is reinforced concrete?
A composite material
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Why is reinforced concrete is a better construction material than non-reinforced concrete?
Concrete is hard and strong when squashed, but weak when stretched, and steel is flexible and strong when stretched. The composite material combines the best properties of both materials, so that it is hard and strong when squashed or stretched.
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What is reinforced concrete useful for constructing?
Bridges and strength of steel.
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What is reinforced concrete useful for constructing?
Bridges and strength of steel.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are there environmental problems when rocks are quarried or mined from the ground?

Back

Landscape is destroyed and has to be reconstructed when the mining or quarrying has finished, it also increases noise, traffic and dust.

Card 3

Front

Give two forms of calcium carbonate.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to limestone when it thermally decomposes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is concrete made?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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