C2 Chemistry

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 10-05-14 09:36
What are the 2 formulas used to identify the rate of reaction?
Rate of reaction = amount of reactant used / time or Amount of product used / time
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What are the alternate ways of measuring the rate of reaction?
1. How long it takes for a precipitate to form 2. How much volume of gas is collected 3 How long it takes for a volume of gas to be collected. 4. Change in pH
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How can we use a graph of product against time to tell us the rate of reaction at a given time?
through the gradient
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What is the collision theory?
Reactions can only happen if particles collide with enough energy to change into new substances.
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What is activation energy?
The minimum energy needed for particles to react
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What are the 5 factors which increase the rate of reaction?
1. Temperature 2. Concentration of solutions 3. Pressure of gases 4. Surface area of solids 5. catalysts
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Why do powders react faster than large pieces of solids
They have a large surface area which means there is greater frequency collisions
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How does an increase in temperature increase the rate of reaction?
The particles have more energy through the thermal energy given. This increases the speed in which they travel, which means there is a greater frequency of collisions.
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How does concentration increase the rate of reaction?
The are more particles dissolved in the same volume. This means the dissolved particles are closer together and so the frequency of collision increases.
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Why does increasing the pressure increase the rate of a reaction of 2 gases?
Put more molecules of gas into the same volume, and so they collide more frequently.
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What are catalysts?
1. They increase the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy so that more collision result in a reaction. 2. They do not get used up. 3. Solids with large surfaces 4. Only work with one type of reaction.
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What are the benefits of using catalysts in industry?
1. Do not ned replacing often 2. Reduction in energy need for reaction reduces costs and impacts on the environment. 3. Conserve resources and reduce pollution.
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Give one disadvantage of transition metals as catalysts
They have toxic compounds and may cause harm if they get into the environment
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What 2 areas of research offer possibilities for new or better catalysts?
1. Nanoscience 2. Enzymes
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What are exothermic reactions?
Reactions that transfer energy to their surroundings. The enegy transferred heats up the surroundings and so temperature increases
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Give examples of exothermic reactions?
1. Combustion 2. Oxidation reactions 3. Neutralisation
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What are endothermic reactions?
Reactions that take in energy from their surroundings. Some cause decrease in temperature and others require an energy supply.
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Give an example of endothermic reaction?
Thermal decomposition
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What is the reaction when copper sulfate crystals are heated? and why?
Endothermic. SO that the water evapourates and you are left with anhydrous cooper sulfate
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What is the reaction when water is added to the anhydrous cooper sulfate?
Exothermic
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Suggest one advantage and disadvantage for re-usable hand warmer compared with a single use hand warmer?
+ Less materials, less waste - Smaller temperature rise
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Suggest one advantage and one disadvanatge of a chemical cold pack compared with using an ice pack?
+ Can be easily activated and to carry - Can only be used once.
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Card 2

Front

What are the alternate ways of measuring the rate of reaction?

Back

1. How long it takes for a precipitate to form 2. How much volume of gas is collected 3 How long it takes for a volume of gas to be collected. 4. Change in pH

Card 3

Front

How can we use a graph of product against time to tell us the rate of reaction at a given time?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the collision theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is activation energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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