C2 Chemical Resources OCR Gateway Revision

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What is the lithosphere?
The crust and the upper mantle
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The crust is said to be broken up like an egg shell on a hard boiled egg, what are these bits called?
Tectonic plates
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What are the problems associated with studying the earth's structure?
1. Crust is too thick to drill through. 2. They need to use seismic waves produced by earthquakes or man-made explosions.
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Why is the theory of tectonic plates now so widely accepted?
1. It explains a wide range of evidence. 2. It has been discussed and tested by a wide range of scientists all over the world.
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Why do geologists bother studying volcanoes?
1. To be able to forecast future eruptions. 2. To reveal information about the structure of the Earth.
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What is the mantle (part of the earth's structure)?
Zone between the crust and the core. It is cold and rigid just below the crust but it gets hotter and more fluid the closer it gets to the core.
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Describe the theory of plate tectonics
Convection currents occur in the semi-rigid mantle causing the plates to move slowly over the mantle. OCEANIC plates are more dense than CONTINENTAL plates. Collisions between oceanic and continental plates causes subduction and partial melting.
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What are the different types of igneous rock and how is it formed?
Iron-rich BASALT formed from very runny lava from safe volcanic eruptions. Silica-rich RHYOLITE is formed from thick lava from very explosive eruptions.
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Name some rocks that can be used in construction?
Granite, limestone, marble and aggregates (broken bits of small rock)
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What are the environmental impacts of quarrying rocks?
Landscape is destroyed and needs to be reconstructed when the mining has finished. Increased level of noise, dust and traffic around the mine.
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What is limestone and marble made of?
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO )
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What happens then limestone is heated? What is this process called?
THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. Makes calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. CaCO --> CaO + CO
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How is concrete made? How can you make it stronger
Cement is mixed with sand, aggregate and water. Stronger by reinforcing with steel. This is then known as a COMPOSITE MATERIAL
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Construction materials can be made from substances obtained from the earth. What is aluminius, iron, brick and glass made from?
Metals from metal ores. Bricks made from clay. Glass made from sand.
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How is cement made?
Heating limestone and clay together.
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Limestone is an example of...
A sedimentary rock
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Marble is an example of...
A metamorphic rock
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Granite is an example of...
An igneous rock
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How is copper extracted from it's ore?
Heating the ore with carbon
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Oxidation and Reduction is used to decribe reactions when one of two things happen. Describe this...(hint, one is to do with oxygen, the other is electron)
OXIDATION can use used to describe a compound that GAINS oxygen OR that LOOSES electrons. REDUCTION can use used to describe a compound that LOOSES oxygen OR that GAINS electrons
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How can copper be purified?
Using electrolysis (Splitting up using electricity)
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Why is it important to recycle metals such as copper?
Saves resources and uses less energy
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What is an alloy? And give some examples
A mixture of one or more metals. Brass (musical instruments) is copper and zinc. Amalgam (tooth fillings) is mixture of mercury with other metals. Solder (joining electrical wires) is lead and tin
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Describe how electrolysis purifies copper
Impure copper is made at the anode( +ve charged electrode). Pure copper is made at the cathode (-ve electrode). Copper sulfate is the electrolyte solution
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Purification of copper is known as a REDOX reaction. Why?
Electrons are gained at the cathode Cu + 2e --> Cu. Electrons are lost at the anode Cu - 2e --> Cu
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What is needed for rusting to occur?
IRON, water and oxygen. Iron + Oxygen + Water ---> Hydrated (III) Oxide
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How is aluminium different to iron?
Iron (Fe) is more dense than Aluminium (Al). Fe is magnetic, Al is not. Fe corrodes, Al does not. Both are easily molded. They are both good electrical conductors.
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What industrial process is used to make ammonia?
Haber process
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What makes the Haber Process so costly?
Price of energy (gas and electricity), starting costs, wages for workers, Equipment and cost of catalyst.
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What does it mean when a reaction has a double headed arrow ( )?
It is a reversible reaction
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Give some uses for ammonia
Manufacturing fertilisers and nitric acid
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What are the two elements needed to make Ammonia?
Nitrogen and Hydrogen. N + 3H --> 2NH
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What is the conditions needed for the Haber Process?
Iron catalyst, high pressure, temperature in the region of 450 deg C.
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What indicators can be used to test the pH of a solution?
Universal indicator, litmus paper etc
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What is an alkali?
A base that is soluble in water
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What is neutralization?
Acid + base -->salt and water
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What ions do all acids contain?
H+ ions (hydrogen ions)
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What ions do all bases contain?
OH- ions (hydroxide ions)
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What does the pH of a solution indicate?
The number of H ions (or the acidity)
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Name some examples of bases
Metal oxides or metal hydroxides
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Name some examples of acids
Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid
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What gas is produced when a metal carbonate is added to an acid?
Carbon dioxide
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What affect does fertilizers have on crop yield?
It increases the yield
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How do plants absorb vital minerals?
Through their roots
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What are the three vital elements that plants need?
Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus
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Give me an example of some fertilizers made from ammonia
Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium Phosphate, Ammonium Sulfate and Urea
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Give an argument FOR and AGAINST the use of fertilisers
More food is needed to be produced as our population increases, eutrophication caused by run off of fertilsers can cause water pollution
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Name the salt when 1) sulfuric 2) nitric 3) hydrochloric 4)phosphoric acid is used in a neutralization reaction
1) Sulfate 2) Nitrate 3) Chlorate 4) Phosphate
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Explain the process of Eutrophication
1. Fertilizers run off from fields into lakes or rivers 2.Increased amount of nitrates or phosphates in water 3. Algal bloom. 4. Blocks sunlight to water plants and they die. 5. aerobic bacteria uses up O as they digest dead plants/fish. 6. No O
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How can we extract/obtain salt (Sodium Chloride)?
Mined from rock salt, solution mining, salt pans
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When sodium chloride solution (brine/salt water) is electrolysed, what products is formed and where?
Hydrogen gas at CATHODE, Chlorine gas at ANODE, sodium hydroxide left in solution
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How do we make household bleach?
Combining sodium hydroxide and Chlorine, both of which are products of electrolysis of brine.
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How do we make household bleach?
Combining sodium hydroxide and Chlorine, both of which are products of electrolysis of brine.
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What products can be made from the products of electrolysis of brine?
Household bleach, PVC (plastic) and other solvents
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What can Chlorine be used for?
Kills bacteria so used in swimming pools to sterilise water
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What can Hydrogen gas be used for?
In the manufacturing of margarine
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What can Sodium hydroxide be used for?
Making soap
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What ions does sodium chloride solution contain (including their charge)?
Na OH Cl H
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The crust is said to be broken up like an egg shell on a hard boiled egg, what are these bits called?

Back

Tectonic plates

Card 3

Front

What are the problems associated with studying the earth's structure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is the theory of tectonic plates now so widely accepted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do geologists bother studying volcanoes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

akono

On slide 12, you said when limestone is heated it makes calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. However it should be Carbon Monoxide as it is CO. You should probably correct that. Despite this, good revision cards and thanks.

akono

Sorry I was wrong. But limestone should be CaCO3 not CO as that is and that is why I thought it should make carbon monoxide.

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