C2.1 Structure and Bonding

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what does the mass number tell you? which number is it
total number of protons and neutrons, top number
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what does the atomic number tell you? which number is it
number of protons, bottom number
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what is the mass of a proton
1
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what is the mass of a neutron
1
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what is a compound
when atoms of two or more elements are chemically bonded together
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explain what is meant by the term ISOTOPE
different atomic forms of the same element, whcih have the SAME number of PROTONS but a DIFFERENT number of NEUTRONS
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what happens in ionic bonding
atoms lose or gain electrons
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what is formed in ionic bonding
ions
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what kind of structure do ionic compounds have
giant ionic lattice
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the ions in an ionic compound form a...
...closely packed regular lattice arrangement
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why do negative a positive ions 'stick together'
strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions in all directions
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properties of ionic compounds are
high melting and boiling points, soluble in water
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why do ionic compounds have these properties
need a lot of energy to overcome the strong electrostatic forces
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what groups are most likely to form ions
1,2,6 and 7
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what kind of electronic structure do ions have
same as a noble gas
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gaining an electron means
becoming negatively charged
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losing an electron means
becoming positively charged
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what are group 7 elements
halogens
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what is the overall charge of any compound
ZERO
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what happens in covalent bonding
sharing of electrons
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what kind of structure can covalent compounds have
simple molecule or giant structure
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properties of simple molecule
weak intermolecular forces meaning low melting and boiling points, usually liquids or gases, cannot conduct electricity
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properties of giant structures
high melting and boiling points due to strong covalent bonds,do not conduct electricity
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examples of simple molecules
chlorine oxygen waterq
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examples of giant structures
diamond graphite silicon dioxide
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facts on diamond
each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds, hardest natural substance
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facts on graphite
each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds, has layers which easily slide over one another making it soft and slippery, has weak intermolecular forces between the layers, good conductor as each carbon atom has one delocalised electron
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facts on silicon dioxide
what sand is made from
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what kind of structure does metal have
giant structure
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why can metal conduct
has delocalised electrons which are free to move throughout the whole structure
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how are metal atoms held together
strong electrostatic forces between the positive metal ions and negative electrons
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why can metals be bent and shaped
their layers of atoms are able to slide over eachother
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what is an alloy
two or more metals mixed together
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why are alloys harder than pure metals
different elements have different sized atoms, this distorts the neat layers of the pure metal, harder for layers to slide over one another
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what is a nanoparticle
a particle 1-100 nanometres in size
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properties of nanoparticles
huge surface area
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thermosoftening polymers...
dont have cross-linking chains, forces between chains are easily overcome, can be melted and remoulded
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thermosetting polymers...
have cross-links holding the chains together in a solid structure, doesnt soften when heated, strong and hard
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Card 2

Front

what does the atomic number tell you? which number is it

Back

number of protons, bottom number

Card 3

Front

what is the mass of a proton

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the mass of a neutron

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a compound

Back

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