C2, The Periodic Table.

  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 04-03-18 00:39
During which century did scientists try to find patterns in the behaviour of elements?
The 19th century.
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What were elements first ordered in?
Their atomic weights.
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When did Newlands propose the law of octaves?
1864.
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What two things did Newlands Law of Octaves state?
That the elements were to be ordered in their atomic wights and that the property of every 8th element were similar.
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What was a downside to Newlands Law of Octaves? (2.)
That new elements, that were being discovered at the time, did not fit into the table or its rules.
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Why did other scientists not accept Newlands Law of Octaves?
As every 8th element did not always have similar properties.
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In what year did Mendeleev create the Periodic Table?
1869.
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What did Mendeleev first do to create his new periodic table? (2.)
He ordered the known elements in order of their atomic wights, but did it in a way that a pattern, in their properties, could be seen.
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Why would Mendeleev make exceptions to the ordering of the elements in their atomic weights?
To make sure that elements with similar properties were in the same group.
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How did Mendeleev convince other scientist to accept his periodic table? (3.)
As he left gaps fro undiscovered elements, meaning he could rightly predict the properties of these and when they were discovered he was right, therefore convincing the other scientists.
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What did the later knowledge of isotopes explain to scientists?
It explained why some elements had heavier atomic weights than they were mean to.
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How are elements arranged in the current periodic table?
In order of their atomic number.
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How are the elements arranged in the current periodic table?
In groups.
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What do ALL of the elements in each group have?
Similar properties.
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Why do the elements in each group have similar chemical properties?
As they have the same number of electrons in their outer-energy level.
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What does the group number tell you about the structure of the atoms in it?
The number of electrons that it has in its highest energy level.
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When metals form ions, are they positive or negative and why?
Positive; they loose electrons.
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When non-metals form ions, are they positive or negative and why?
Negative; they gain electrons.
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Why the Noble Gases (Group 0 elements) not very reactive?
As they have a stable electron structure in their atoms.
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How many electrons do the Noble Gases have in their outer energy level and what does this mean?
They have 8, meaning it is full and they are stable and therefore do not need to react to become stable.
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How many electrons does helium have in its outer energy level?
Two.
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Why is helium considered to be stable then?
As it only has one energy level, meaning it only needs 2 to be stable.
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What is the alternative name for group 1 elements?
The Alkali metals.
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How reactive are the alkali metals?
Very reactive.
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In what state are alkali metals at r.t.?
A soft solid state.
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In words, what are the boiling points like for the alkali metals?
Low.
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Do the boiling points, of the alkali metals, decrease or increase going down the group?
Decrease.
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What are the density like for alkali metals?
Low.
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What does this mean? (4.)
That lithium, sodium and potassium can float on water.
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What do alkali metals react well with?
Oxygen.
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What does the reaction between oxygen and an alkali metal form on the surface of the metal?
An oxide coating to form.
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What does the reaction between an alkali metal and water form?
Hydrogen gas and a metal hydroxide, which is an alkali.
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What are all metal hydroxides soluble in?
Water.
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What do aqueous metal hydroxides form?
A colourless solution with a high pH value.
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What colour does universal indicator turn when it is mixed with a substance of high pH?
Purple.
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What do alkali metals react with, to form white or colourless salt crystals?
The halogens/group 7 elements.
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What do alkali metal compounds dissolve in, to from solutions that are often colourless?
In water.
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Complete the rule: going down group 1, the reactivity of the metals...
....increases.
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What is another name for the group 7 elements?
The halogens.
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What are ALL halogens and what does this mean?
They are diatonic molecules, meaning that a single atom of the elements must be bonded to another atom of the element.
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What type of bond exists between the two atoms in the halogen diatonic molecules? (2.)
A single covalent bond.
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In words, what boiling points do the halogens have?
Low ones.
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Going down group 7, do the boiling points, of the elements, increase or decrease?
Increase.
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At r.t. what colour is fluorine gas?
Pale yellow.
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At r.t. what colour is chlorine gas?
Green.
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At r.t. what colour is bromine liquid?
Red-brown.
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What colour gas is iodine solid vaporised to?
Violet.
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What are the halogen like, in terms of conductivity?
They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
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What are halide ions?
Halogen ions.
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What is the charge of halide ions?
1-.
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What can halide ions bond covalently to?
Other non-metals.
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Complete the rule: the reactivity, of the halogens, decreases as you go...
....down the group.
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What can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of a halide compound?
A more reactive halogen.
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What does the reactivity of an element depend on?
The number of electrons that the element has.
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Going down a group, what two things happen to the atoms in the group?
They get larger and have more fully occupied energy levels.
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What happens with the force of attraction from the electrons in the outer energy level to the atomic nucleus as atoms get larger?
It becomes weaker.
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What do the atom's inner energy levels do to the force of attraction between the outer energy level electrons and the atomic nucleus? (2.)
They shied the atomic nucleus, weakening the force of attraction.
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Why, when going down a group of metals, does the reactivity of them increase? (2.)
As the metals loose electrons, meaning that the force of attraction is not needed.
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Why, when going down a group of non-metals, does the reactivity of them decrease? (2.)
As they gain electrons when reacting, meaning that the force of attraction is needed.
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Where are the transition elements located on the periodic table?
In the central block/between groups 2 and 3.
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Card 2

Front

What were elements first ordered in?

Back

Their atomic weights.

Card 3

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When did Newlands propose the law of octaves?

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Card 4

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What two things did Newlands Law of Octaves state?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was a downside to Newlands Law of Octaves? (2.)

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