# C2 Revision Cards

• Created by: timz16
• Created on: 30-05-16 13:55
What is the lithosphere?
Includes the upper part of the mantle and includes the crust. It's made up of techtonic plates and is cold and rigid - 100km thick in places
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Describe the inner structure of the Earth?
Crust, Lithosphere, Mantle, Liguid Outer Core and Solid Inner Core
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Briefly Describe how volcanoes and earthquakes occur by using the keyword: Techtonic Plates?
The movement of the plates against each other causes disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes
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How many cm per year do the Techtonic Plates move?
2.5cm per year
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Give an explanation as to why it is difficult to study the structure of the Earth?
Scientists cannot get at it directly, crust is too thick to drill through
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Give two ways Seismic Waves can be produced?
Earthquakes and Man made explosions
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Explain how scientists investigate what lies underneath the Earths crust?
By using Seismic Waves and determining how long it takes for these waves to travel through the Earth, where they are detected Scientists can determine the structure of the Earth
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What are the Two types of waves called?
P-Waves and S-Waves
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Describe the evidence that backed up Wengers Theory of Continental Drift?
Matching layers of rocks and earthworms on different continents
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Why was Wengers Theory not accepted at First?
It explained things the land bridge theory couldn't explain. E.g. The Formation of the mountains - caused when the echtonic plates smashed into each other, But the main problem was Wenger's explanation of how the drifting happened was not convincing
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Give one reason as to how the Evidence eventually became overwhelming?
When magma rises through the sea floor and solidifies it forms underwater mountains that are roughly symetrical either side of the ridge - showing the sea floor was spreading
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How are volcanoes formed?
Molten rock (magma) from the mantle emerges through the Earths Crust. When it emerges from the Earths crust it boils over and this can sometimes be violent if the pressure is released
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What is subduction? and how can it lead to Volcanic formation?
When a dense oceanic plate is forced under a less dense continental plate. As the oceanic plate is forced it melts and starts to rise. If this molten rock finds its ways to the surface volcanoes can form
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How is an eruption of silica-rich rhyolitic different to an eruption of Iron-rich basaltic lava?
Iron Rich Basalt is where the lava is runny from an eruption and fairly safe In comparison to Silica-Rich Rhyolite where the eruption can be explosive and produces thick lava
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Describe how Sedimentry Rocks are formed?
Is formed form layers of sediment in lakes or seas, over millions of years the layers get buried under more layers amd the weight pressing down squeezes out the water - fluids flowing the pores deposit natural mineral cement
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What is the thermal decomposition for Limestone?
Calcium Carbonate = (arrow in exam) Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
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How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Formed when lots of heat and pressure applied on sedimentary or igneous rocks over a long period of time.
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How are Igneous rocks formed?
When fresh magama cools and contain various interlocking crystals making them hard.
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How is Glass Made?
Melting Limestone (Calcium Carbonate) with soda and sand until melts, wait for the melted substance to cool - Glass if formed
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What are Bircks made up of?
Clay
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How is Concrete Formed?
Cement, sand, aggregate and water are mixed together this creates Concrete
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How is cement formed?
Powdered Clay and powdered limestone are roasted in a kiln to make cement
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Give two ways extracting rocks can cause environmental damage?
Destroys Habitats/Transporting of rocks causes noise and pollution/Subsidence
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What does electrolysis mean?
Splitting up with electricity
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Briefly describe how electrolysis is used to obtain pure copper?
During elctrolysis copper dissolves away from the anode and is depositied at the Cathode. So the anode loses mass and the cathode gains mass.
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Write down the equation that happens at the Cathode?
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- = (arrow in the exam) Cu (s)
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Write down the equation that happens at the Anode?
Cu (s) = (arrow in the exam) Cu2+(aq) + 2e-
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Define an Alloy?
A Mixture of a metal and other elements - can be a mixture of two or more different metals or a mixture of a metal and a non-metal
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Brass is an alloy of? List some of the things it can be used for?
Copper and zinc and can be used for making brass musical instruments and screws,springs and doorknobs
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Bronze is an alloy of? List some of the things it can be used for?
Copper and Tin and can be used to make springs and motor bearings also bells and sculptures
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Solder is an alloy of? List some of the things it can be used for?
lead and tin and can be used to solder things together
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Amalgam is an alloy of? List some of the things it can be used for?
Mercury (only containing) in the dentist industry for tooth filling
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Give an example of a smart alloy and what its used for?
Titanium/Nickel (Nitinol) and can be used on the frames of glasses - meaning they can be bent or sat on and still go back to their original shape (shape memory)
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What is the word equation for rusting?
Iron + Oxygen + Water = (arrow in exam) Hydrated Iron (III) Oxide
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Explain why a car near the seaside is more likely to rust then a car in the desert?
Because for rusting to take place you need oxygen and water to come into contact with Iron. The more acidic or salty the water the faster rusting happens hence why cars near the seaside rust quicker
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What are the advantages of Aluminium over Steel?
Less dense (lighter) and corrodes less (longer lifetime) but one huge disadvantage of Aluminium over steel is that it costs more than Steel
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List the 5 materials needed to build different parts of the car?
Glass, Steel, Aluminium, Plastics and Fibres
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What is indicator dye? and the range of the pH scale?
Dye in an indicator that changes colour depending on th pH of a substance and 0-14
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Define an Acid? What determines the pH of an acid?
substance with a pH of less than 7, and how many postively charged Hydorgen ions there is
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Define an Base? What determines the pH of an Alkali?
substance with a pH greater than 7 and how many negatively charged Hydroxide ions there is
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Name the three essential elements in Fertilisers?
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium
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How does Nitrogen increase the growth of plants?
The adding of nitrogen to plant proteins increase their growth making them grow faster - increasing crop yield
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Name two fertilisers which are manafactured from Ammonia?
Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium phosphate or Potassium Nitrate
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Describe what happens when excess fertilisers is put onto fields?
run into lakes or streams increasing the pH of the lake. As a result algal begin to bloom blocking light to the lake plants below - cannot photosynthesise so die. Aerobic bacteria use up all the oxygen and everything else in the river dies.
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Explain why 450 degrees celsuis is used as the optimum temparature for the Haber Process?
It gives a fast rate of reaction and reasonable percentage yield
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What effect does a catalyst have on a reaction?
Speeds up the reaction without getting in the way - gets it to equilibrium proportions more quickly
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Give 5 factors that affect the cost of producing a chemical on an industrial scale?
Price of Energy, Cost of Raw Materials, Labour Costs (Wages), Plant Costs and Rate of production
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Describe the inner structure of the Earth?

#### Back

Crust, Lithosphere, Mantle, Liguid Outer Core and Solid Inner Core

### Card 3

#### Front

Briefly Describe how volcanoes and earthquakes occur by using the keyword: Techtonic Plates?

### Card 4

#### Front

How many cm per year do the Techtonic Plates move?

### Card 5

#### Front

Give an explanation as to why it is difficult to study the structure of the Earth?