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Equilibrium If a chemical reaction happens in a container where one or more of the reactants or products can escape, you have an open system. If a chemical reaction happens in a container where none of the reactants or products can escape, you have a
Other factors If we remove the products from an equilibrium mixture, more reactants are converted into products. If a catalyst is used, the reaction reaches equilibrium much sooner, because the catalyst speeds up the forward and reverse reactions by
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Effect of temperature on equilibrium You can predict what happens to the amount of product in an equilibrium mixture if the temperature is changed: if the temperature is increased, the position of equilibrium moves in the direction of the endothermic
Effect of pressure on equilibrium You can predict what happens to the amount of product in an equilibrium mixture of gases if the pressure is changed. If the pressure is increased, the position of equilibrium moves in the direction of the fewest mole
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What is the percentage by mass of oxygen (O) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH)? First, work out the relative formula mass of the compound, using the Arvalues for each element. In the case of sodium hydroxide, these are Na = 23, O = 16, H = 1. (You will be
Concentration in mol/dm3 = amount in mol ÷ volume in dm3 This equation can be rearranged to find the amount of solute or volume of solution. Divide a volume in cm3 by 1000 to convert it to a volume in dm3.
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Bacteria cells A bacterium is a single-celled organism. A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct
Special cells Leaf cells-Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Root hair cell-absorbs minerals, water and ions from the soil. Sperm cell- fertilises with the egg Red blood cell-contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
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Diffusion Dissolved substances have to pass through the cell membrane to get into or out of a cell. Diffusion is one of the processes that allows this to happen
Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Effect of pressure on equilibrium You can predict what happens to the amount of product in an equilibrium mixture of gases if the pressure is changed. If the pressure is increased, the position of equilibrium moves in the direction of the fewest mole

Back

Effect of temperature on equilibrium You can predict what happens to the amount of product in an equilibrium mixture if the temperature is changed: if the temperature is increased, the position of equilibrium moves in the direction of the endothermic

Card 3

Front

Concentration in mol/dm3 = amount in mol ÷ volume in dm3 This equation can be rearranged to find the amount of solute or volume of solution. Divide a volume in cm3 by 1000 to convert it to a volume in dm3.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Special cells Leaf cells-Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Root hair cell-absorbs minerals, water and ions from the soil. Sperm cell- fertilises with the egg Red blood cell-contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Diffusion occurs when particles spread. They move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5

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