C2 Memorise Bits

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Ionic compounds always form
Regular lattice structures
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Ionic compounds all have (2)
1) High melting points and high boiling points due to strong electrostatic attraction. 2) Dissolve easily in water and ions separate and free to move in solution so carry current.
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Covalent Simple Molecular:
1) Very strong covalent bonds to form small molecules of several atoms. 2) Intermolecular forces very week. 3) Melting and boiling points very low. 4) Most are liquids or gases 5) No ions so don't conduct electricity.
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Giant covalent structure: (macromolecules)
1) Similar to giant ionic structures except no charged ions. 2) Each atom joined by very strong covalent bonds. 3) High melt/boiling points 4) Don't conduct electricity- except molten graphite. 5) E.g of this: graphite and diamond.
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Each carbon forms four covalent bonds in very rigid structure to carbons. Used for drills.
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Silicon Dioxide (Silica)
What sand is made of. Each grain is one giant structure of silicon and oxygen.
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Carbon only forms 3 carbon bonds. This creates layers that are free to slide over each other. Layers can be rubbed off onto paper. Weak intermolecular forces between layers.
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Graphite is only non metal which is good conductor of heat and electricity because
Each C atom has one delocalised electron and this free electron can conduct heat and electricity.
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Metals also have
giant structure
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They have...
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Electrons do what
move freely throughout whole structure and conduct heat and electricity
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Electrons also
hold the atoms in a regular structure. Strong electrostatic forces between the positive metal ions and negative electrons.
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Metallic structures
can slide over each other due to regular patterns.
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Alloys are harder than pure metals
disrupt uniform pattern and layers cannot slide over each other as easily.
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Nitinol is a
shape memory alloy
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Shape memory alloys work:
when cool you can bend it and twist it like rubber. If you heat at a certain temperature it goes back to a 'remembered' shape.
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e.g of use
Glasses: bend glasses out of shape this will bring them back into shape when heated; braces: tries to go to remembered shape bringing teeth with it.
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Nanoparticles are (size)
1-100 nanometres across
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Nanoparticles contain roughly
a few hundred atoms
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Fullerenes are...
molecules of carbon shaped like hollow balls or closed tubes. Arranged hexagonally.
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Different fullerenes contain
different numbers of carbon atoms
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Nanoparticle has
very different properties from bulk chemical that it's made from e.g. fullerenes have different properties from normal lumps of Carbon
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Fullerenes can be joined together to form
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Nanotubes are very _____ because ____
Strong because they have very strong covalent bonds.
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Use of nanotubes
Reinforce graphite in Tennis rackets
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Nanoparticles have
huge surface area to volume ratio so could help make new catalysts
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You could make
highly sensitive sensors to detect specific particles
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Nano tube uses
1) stronger lighter building materials 2) cosmetics e.g. sun tan cream, deodorant, not leaving marks. 3) nano medicine -easily absorbed 4) Lubricant coatings 5) Tiny electric circuits
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Polymers properties depend upon
strength of forces between their chains
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Thermosoftening polymers
do not have cross linking between chains > forces easy to overcome, so its easy to melt and when it cools it hardens into a new shape > also free to slide over each other
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have crosslinks and have solid structures. Do not soften when heated. Strong hard and rigid.
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Low density poly(ethene)
Heating ethene to 200c under high pressure. (Flexible and used for bags and bottles)
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HD Poly(ethene)
lower temperature with catalyst more rigid used for water tanks and drain pipes.
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% mass equation
(Ar X Number of atoms of element looking for) ÷ (Whole Mr)
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1) 48g gives 80g 2) 1g gives (80/48)g 3) 60g gives 60(80/48)g = 100g.
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Percentage yield
Actual/Theoretical * 100
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Neutralisation works in terms of this
acid+base -> salt + water [H+ + OH- ------> H2O(l)
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Acid + Metal goes to
Salt + Hydrogen
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Metal Oxides and Metal Hydroxides are
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Eg HCl + CuO ->
CuCl + H2O
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Ammonia can be neutralised with HNO3 to make
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Ammonium nitrate is a
neutral salt
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No water produced in Ammonia and HNO3 reaction
just so u know :P
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Making soluble salts
Metal/Metal oxide/Metal Hydroxide to acid and solid will dissolve in acid as it reacts. Filter out excess metal, metal oxide or metal hydroxide to get the salt solution. Best crystals, evaporate some of water and leave rest to evaporate on its own.
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Eg of soluble salt
MetalOxide + HCl ---> Metal Chloride + Water
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Using alkali
use indicator to know when reaction is finished and then evaporate and crystallise as normal
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Insoluble salts using
precipitate reactions
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acid + metal → salt + hydrogen
or acid + metal (hydr)oxide → salt + water
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Insoluble salt
Remember: if you want to make an insoluble salt XY, mixing X nitrate with sodium Y will always work. In the example above, X is silver and Y is chloride.
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In electrolysis:
more reactive the element, the more likely to stay as ions. E.g sodium hydroxide left in solution.
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Aluminium oxide and cryolite
Cryolite brings temperature down from 2000C to 900C
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Carbon electrodes
on this thing meaning CO2 and electrodes go away :(
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Ionic compounds all have (2)


1) High melting points and high boiling points due to strong electrostatic attraction. 2) Dissolve easily in water and ions separate and free to move in solution so carry current.

Card 3


Covalent Simple Molecular:


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Giant covalent structure: (macromolecules)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
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