C2 & C3 chemistry

HideShow resource information
Name the 3 layers of the Earth
crust, mantle, core
1 of 53
What is the lithosphere?
Relatively cold, rigid outer part of Earth, made of crust & top mantle
2 of 53
What causes plates to move?
convection currents = magma to rise to surface at plate boundaries. when it solidifies, new igneous rock is formed. this slow movement leads to moving plates!
3 of 53
Why is the theory of plate tectonics now widely accepted?
Because it explains a range of evidence & has been discussed and tested by many scientists
4 of 53
What did Wegener notice about the Earth's surface?
Continents fit like jigsaw / geology of Scot&Can was similar / similar animal species were found either side of Atlantic
5 of 53
What did the studies of Wegener's theory show?
1) plates are moving apart 2) rock age increases as move away from boundary
6 of 53
Why do geologists study volcanoes?
To understand Earth's structure / to forecast eruptions / give early eruption warnings
7 of 53
where do volcanoes form?
At places where magma can find its way through weaknesses in Earth's crust
8 of 53
Volcanoes make 2 types of lava. What are they?
Iron-rich basalt -> runny & safe / Silica-rich rhyolite -> thicker & more violent
9 of 53
heated Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) word equation
calcium carbonate -> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
10 of 53
What is a thermal decomposition reaction?
When one material breaks down into 2+ substances when heated
11 of 53
How can cement be strengthened?
By allowing it to set around steel rods to REINFORCE IT. (reinforced concrete is a composite material)
12 of 53
What can mines and quarries be?
Noisy, dusty, take up land, change landscape shape, increase local traffic
13 of 53
Heating copper & carbon word equation
copper oxide + carbon -> copper + carbon dioxide
14 of 53
Electrolysis: anode equation
Cu - 2e- -> Cu2+
15 of 53
Electrolysis: cathode equation
Cu2+ + 2e- -> Cu
16 of 53
What is an alloy?
A mixture of a metal with another element (usually another metal)
17 of 53
What is a smart alloy & give an example
A smart alloy, e.g. NITINOL - can be bent & twisted. Returns to original shape when heated (SHAPE MEMORY)
18 of 53
Give a use of smart alloys
frames of reading glasses
19 of 53
Why is steel used to make car bodies?
it's strong & malleable
20 of 53
Properties of aluminium
Lightweight / doesn't corrode
21 of 53
What is aluminium in comparison to steel?
lighter / more £££ / corrodes less
22 of 53
Why is steel used to make cars?
It's harder and stronger than iron / doesn't corrode as fast as iron
23 of 53
State the 3 things rusting needs...
Iron, water & oxygen
24 of 53
Rusting equation
iron + oxygen + water -> hydrated iron(III) oxide
25 of 53
Recycling materials means..?
less quarrying / less energy / saves natural resources / reductions in disposal problems
26 of 53
What is the Haber Process?
Ammonia made on large scale
27 of 53
Ammonia reactants:
Nitrogen & hydrogen
28 of 53
Haber Process equation
nitrogen + hydrogen >< ammonia
29 of 53
What does the cost of making a new substance depend on?
price of energy / labour costs / cost of equipment
30 of 53
Factors that affect cost of making new substances
pressure, catalyst, temperature, # of people...
31 of 53
What are fertilisers?
Chemicals that give plants ESSENTIAL CHEMICAL ELEMENTS for growth
32 of 53
How do fertilisers increase crop yield?
replacing essential elements / providing nitrogen as soluble nitrates
33 of 53
What is eutrophication?
When the overuse of fertilisers changes ecosystems in lakes, rivers and streams
34 of 53
Uses for products of electrolysis of sodium chloride
Sodium hydroxide = soap / hydrogen = margarine / chlorine = sterilise water, make PVC
35 of 53
Sodium chloride is mined...?
in Cheschire as a ROCK SALT / by solution mining for chemical industry
36 of 53
Electrolysis of sodium chloride: h2 reduction at cathode EQUATION
2H+ + 2e- -> H2
37 of 53
Electrolysis of sodium chloride: chlorine oxidation at anode EQUATION
2Cl- - 2e- -> Cl2
38 of 53
Percentage yield formula
percentage yield = actual yield / predicted yield X 100
39 of 53
What is atom economy?
a way of measuring the # of atoms wasted in chemical reaction
40 of 53
Exothermic reactions do what?
41 of 53
Endothermic reactions do what?
42 of 53
Batch processes
make product on demand on SMALL SCALE // variety of stuff // labour intensive
43 of 53
Continuous processes
make product on LARGE SCALE // making only 1 thing // operate always // run automatically
44 of 53
How can materials used to make a medicine be extracted from plants?
crushing, boiling & dissolving or chromatography
45 of 53
What do costs of making medicine include?
materials needed, research & testing, labour, energy and marketing.
46 of 53
Name the 3 types of carbon!
Diamond, graphite & buckyballs
47 of 53
Properties of diamond
insoluble in water / colourless, shiny, transparent / high melting point
48 of 53
Properties of graphite
insoluble in water / black and slippery / opaque / conducts electricity / giant molecular structure
49 of 53
What are nanotubes used for?
Reinforce graphite tennis racquets / make connectors in electrical circuits / develop efficient industrial catalysts
50 of 53
Give one use of an ester
51 of 53
State 2 important physical properties of nanotubes
strong & conduct electricity well
52 of 53
What is an allotrope?
different forms of same element with atoms arranged in different structures
53 of 53

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the lithosphere?


Relatively cold, rigid outer part of Earth, made of crust & top mantle

Card 3


What causes plates to move?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why is the theory of plate tectonics now widely accepted?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did Wegener notice about the Earth's surface?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Acids, bases and salts resources »