C2 Chapter 5 Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids and bases.

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State the ion released by acids when dissolved in water
H+ Hydrogen
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Describe what is meant by a base
Bases are metal oxides and hydroxides and above pH7
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State 3 acids.
HCl - Hydrochloric acid H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid HNO3 - Nitric acid
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What is an alkali?
Bases that dissolve in water. (metals and hydroxides)
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Give one example of a metal oxide and a metal hydroxide
CuO - Copper Oxide Mg(OH)2
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What ion does an alkali release when dissolved in water?
OH- Hydroxide
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Give the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. (Hydrogen and Hydroxide)
H+ + OH- -->H2O
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Give a pH indicator
Universal Indicator
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State what is meant by "soluble salt"
They contain metal and non-metal part and dissolve in water.
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How do you make a soluble salt from metal?
Acid+metal --> Salt+hydrogen
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Give a suitable example of a salt.
eg/ LiNO3
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Give the equation of the reactants: hydrochloric acid and zinc
2HCL(aq)+Zn(s) -->ZnCl2(aq) +H2(g)
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Give the equation of the reactants: sulfuric acid and copper
H2SO4(aq)+Cu(s) --> CuSO4(aq)+H2(g)
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Give the equation of the reactants: nitric acid and silver
2HNO3(aq)+2Ag(s)-->2AgNO3(aq)+H2(g)
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How do we know when this reaction has finished?
Acid=All reacted>More metal=No reaction>Reaction=Finished
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How do we get the salt?
Filter unreacted metal>Evaporate water>Collect salt crystals
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Give 2 problems of this reaction.
Some metals=very reactive(potassium). Explosive with acid.
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Describe how to make soluble salts by reacting acids with bases.
Acid+Base ---> Salt+Water
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Give an example of an insoluble base.
CuO, Mg(OH)2... (s)
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Give the equation of the reactants H2SO4 and CuO.
H2SO4(aq)+CuO(s) ---> CuSO4(aq)+H2O(l)
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How can we tell when this reaction has finished?
All reacted->Add more base=No reaction, Filtration for solid.
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What type of reaction is an acid+insoluble base?
Neutralisation.
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Describe how to make a soluble salt by reacting a an acid with an alkali.
Acid+Alkali-->Salt+Water
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What are bases and what are alkalis?
Bases=Metal oxides/hydroxides, alkalis=metal hydroxide bases(aq)
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Give the equation of the reactants hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.
HCl(aq)+NaOH(aq)-->NaCl(aq)+H2O(l)
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How do we carry out the experiment?
Measure Alkali with U.indicator>Measure acid;burette>Repeat
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How can we tell the reaction has finished?
pH indicator=>Reaction finished when pH7 (neutral)
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Why do we repeat without the pH indicator in?
The indicator contaminates the product.
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How can we collect the crystals of the salt?
Evaporate the water to crystalise the salt.
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How is ammonium hydroxide produced?(give the equation)
Dissolve ammonia(g) in water. NH3+H2O->NH4OH(aq)
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From the ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, what can we therefore go on to make? (give the equation)
Ammonium nitrate;NH4OH(aq)+HNO3(aq)->NH4NO3(aq)+H2O
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What is ammonium nitrate used for?
Fertiliser
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State which solutions can be used mixed together to make an insoluble salt.
Mix together two soluble salts (in solution)
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State what is meant by a precipitate.
A solid which is formed when two solutions are mixed.
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How can you separate the precipitate from the other product?
Filtration
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The precipitate can often be impure from the other product. How can you make sure it is pure?
Wash it with distilled water.
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Fill in the gaps. Lead...solution+Sodium...solution->Lead iodide precipitate+Sodium nitrate solution
Lead [nitrate] solution + Sodium [iodide] solution (Switch NMs.)
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What can we use precipitation reactions for?
Remove unwanted ions from the drinking water/sewage.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe what is meant by a base

Back

Bases are metal oxides and hydroxides and above pH7

Card 3

Front

State 3 acids.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an alkali?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give one example of a metal oxide and a metal hydroxide

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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