c2

Which one is the atomic mass number?
Top left
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Which one is the atomic number (number of protons)?
Bottom left
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What are compounds?
Two or more elements chemically combined
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What is an ion?
A charged particle
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What are isotopes?
A different atomic form of the same element, which has the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons
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What is ionic bonding?
When atoms lose or gain electrons to form charge particles (ions)
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What happens in ionic bonding?
An atom shares its electrons with another to become charged
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What elements does ionic bonding occur between?
Metals and non metals
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How does Ionic bonding work?
The charged particles become strongly attracted to one and other
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What structure do ionic substances form?
Giant ionic lattices
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Why do ionic bonds have high BP and MP?
As they have very strong electrostatic forces of attraction
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Why can ionic compounds conduct electricity when in a molten form?
As the ions are free to move
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What is covalent bonding?
The sharing of electrons with other atoms
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What is the aim of bonding?
To fill the outermost shell
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What elements does covalent bonding occur between?
Non metals
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Why are covalent bonds weak?
As they have few atoms so fewer weak intermolecular forces
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What are the products of simple covalent bonds?
Usually liquid or gas, low MP, Low BP, insoluble, Non conductors of electricity
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What is a simple covalent bond?
Has few atoms within its molecule and few weak inter molecular forces of attraction, so less energy is needed
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What are giant covalent bonds?
Solids with lots of strong covalent bonds and lots of weak inter molecular bonds
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What are some giant covalent structures?
Diamond, Graphite
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What are giant covalent bonds melting points?
High
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Why is diamond the hardest substance on earth?
As it has a bonding ratio of 1:4 meaning it is very rigid
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Why is graphite a good lubricant?
As the layers can slide over each other
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Why is graphite a good conductor of heat and electricity?
As each carbon atom has a free electron
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What bonding takes place in metals?
Metallic bonding
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What happens in metallic bonding?
The outer shell's electrons become free
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Why are metal alloys stronger?
As the different sized atoms stop the layers from sliding over each other
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why can metals be bent and shaped?
As the layers can slide over each other
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How does metallic bonding work?
The negatively charged electron and the positively charged ion have a strong force of attraction
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What are smart materials?
Materials that behave differently depending on the conditions (temp)
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What can nanoparticles be used for?
Delivering medicine, lubricants, electric circuits
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Why is it easy to melt thermo softening polymers?
As they dont have any crosslinks
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What are the advantages of thermo softening polymers?
can be reshaped
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Why are thermosetting polymers so hard to melt?
As they have crosslinks
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What are the advantages to thermosetting polymers?
Stronger, harder more rigid and have higher melting points
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What factors effect the properties of polymers?
Temperature, pressure and catalysts
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How do you get a low density polymer?
Heating to 200 and using a high pressure
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How do you work out relative formula mass?
Add all of the atomic mass numbers together
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How do you work out empirical formula?
Get the experimental masses and divide them by the atomic mass, then turn the number into a nice ratio to work out the simplest formula
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How do you do calculating mass of a substance?
Get the balanced equation, work out the relative formula masses of product and reactant. Work out what 1g of reactant = and then times by desired mass
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Why might a reaction not have a 100% yield?
It might be a reversible reaction, might have been some unexpected reactions
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What happens in paper chromatography?
Put samples on an unknown filter paper, place the paper in a small amount of solvent, let the solvent rise and the chemicals separate
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What is the purpose of paper chromatography?
To identify additives and and food colouring
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What are the advantages to using machines?
Very sensitive, very fast, very accurate
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What is gas chromatography?
An industrial method used to separate compounds
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How does Gas chromatography work?
A mixture is vapourised, a carrier gas molecule moves the vapour through the coiled column. The compounds have different attractions to the material and so move at different speeds.
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How are compounds identified in gas chromatography?
The different compounds have different retention times so a gas chromatograph is produced, showing the positions of the peaks
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What is a gas mass spectrometer?
A machine that measures the mass of the substances to identify what substance they are
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What is a rate of reaction?
The speed at which a reaction takes place
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What is an example of a fast reaction?
Burning/explosion
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What things effect the rate of reaction?
Surface area, temperature, catalyst, concentration
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What shows the quickest reaction?
The steepest slope?
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How do you measure the rate of reaction?
Measuring how quickly products are formed, or how quickly the reactants are used up
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How do you measure the rate of reaction in a precipitate which clouds a solution?
Observe a mark at the bottom of the beaker and measure how long it is until the mark disapears
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How do you measure the rate of reaction when a gas goes off?
Observe the rate of change in mass as a gas is given off.
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What is another way of measuring the rate of reaction for a gas?
Measure the increase in volume in a syringe or measure cylinder
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What test shows the effects of surface area?
Powdered marble and chips
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What is a good reaction to show the effects of concentration?
HCl with magnesium metal
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What increases the rate of reaction?
More collisions
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How does temperature increase rate of reaction?
Gives particles to move around quicker which gives them more energy and
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How does a higher concentration increase it?
There are more particles to react to, which makes the reaction faster as the frequency of collision is increased
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How does a larger surface area increase it?
As more area is exposed to be reacted against
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What is a catalyst?
A substance which increases the rate of reaction without being used up or changed
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Why are catalysts good in industry?
As they lower the costs as they speed up reaction, they lower costs as they lower activation energy
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What are the disadvantages to catalysts?
They cost a lot to get, you might need different ones, can be toxic
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What is an exothermic reaction?
A reaction which transfers energy to the surroundings
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What is an exothermic reaction?
A reaction which takes in energy
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What ions are acidic?
H+
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What ions are bases?
OH-
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What is an alkali?
A base which can dissolve in water
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What is a base?
A substance with a pH greater than 7
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What is the reaction between an acid and base?
Neutrilisation
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What is formed in a neutralization reaction?
Salt + water
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What is are the products of an acid and metal reaction?
Salt + hydrogen
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What are the products when you react acid and metal oxides and hydroxides?
Salt + water
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How can Ammonia be neutralized?
Adding nitric acid which is good as it gets as much nitrogen as possiable
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What salts are soluble in water?
Chlorides, Sulphates, Nitrates
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What salts are insoluble in water?
Hydroxides and oxides
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How can you make a soluble salt?
By combing two salt solutions to make a precipitate
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How can you make a soluble salt?
Reacting an acid with a base, acid and alkali, acid and metal
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What is electrolysis?
The splitting up with electricity
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What do you need for electrolysis to work?
A molten or dissolved compound so ions are free to move
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What is formed at the positive electrode?
negative ions lose electrons to become stable
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What happens at the negative electrode?
Positive ions gain electrons to become stable
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What happens if there is more than 1 positive ion in the solution?
The more reactive one will stay in the solution
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What happens if there is a halide present in the solution?
Oxygen wont go to the positive electrode the halide will
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How is aluminium manufactured?
The electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide
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Why is cryolite added to the mixture?
To lower the high melting point required
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What are the electrodes made of?
Carbon
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What forms where in the reaction?
Oxygen forms at the positive electrodes, where it reacts to form carbon dioxide, so the electrodes need replacing over time. Aluminium goes to the negative electrode and sinks to the bottom
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What is brine?
A sodium chloride solution
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What is electroplating?
The coating of an object with a thin layer of metal by electrolysis
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What is an electrolyte?
A liquid which contains ions
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What can brine be used for?
PVC and Bleach, Margarine, soap
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What are the uses of electroplating?
Decoration, conduction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Which one is the atomic number (number of protons)?

Back

Bottom left

Card 3

Front

What are compounds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an ion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are isotopes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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