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simple molecules properties are
low melting and boiling points, weak intermolecular forces, does not conduct electricity
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giant covalent molecules properties are
high melting and boiling points, hard, strong covalent bonds
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loss of electrons
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gain of electrons
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ionic bonding
loose of gain an electron, get a charge of +/-, attract anouther
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ionic bonding creates a
giant lattice structure of non metals and metals
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what do ionic bonds have
strong electrostatic forces of attraction
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properties of ionic bonding
high melting point and boiling point, conducts electricity when melted or dissolved, ions move freely and carry a charge
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electroplating is
object being plated by the negative electrode (cathode)
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what is electroplating used for
improves appearance, stops corrosion and saves money
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extracting aliminum using electrolysis what do you use to lower the melting point
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what electrodes do you use
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what is the problem with them
they need to be replaced as the corrode into CO2
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what is electrolysis
splitting up a substance using electricity
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which substance forms at the electrode if there is 2 which are charged in that way
the less reactive one
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what happenes in electrolysis
ions move to the oppositly vharged electrodes
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electrolysis needs
2 electrodes an electrolyte, a power supply
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properties of graphite
conducts electricity, soft and slippery between layers - it has delocalised electrons
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how are elements arranged in the periodic table
by atomic number
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why are alloys useful
because they are stronger than normal metals
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because the mixture od matals has different sized atoms which prevent the layers from sliding over each other
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what do metals have
a sea of delocalised electrons
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metals can carry charge
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metal ions are arranged in layers with
elctrostatic forces of attraction between the ions and delocalised electrons
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the way metals layers can slide over each other means
they are malleable
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what is nano-technology
means really really really small
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reactions that give out energy to its surroundings
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reactions that take in energy from its surroundings
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in reversible reactions
one way will be exothermic the other endothermic
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examples of exothermic reactions
respiration, combustion
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examples of endothermic
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in a closed system the reversible reaction
will form an equilibrium
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name how to seeperate a mixture
gas chromotography, paper chromotography
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advantages of gas chromotography
quick accurate analyse small amounts
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disadvantages of gas chromotography
expensive, needs specail training, interpreted by comparison only
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what does the mass spectrosor do
identifys and finds the molecular mass
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molecualer ion peak = peak with the largest mass
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are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
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using different monomers and conditions will change the type of polymer you produce
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melt easily when heated
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because they have weak intermolecular forces
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dont melt
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because the have strong croslinks
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a precipitation reaction is a reaction which forms a
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how do you remove the precipitate
through filtering
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if the reaction gives you an aquase solution you
evaporate it
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catalysts do what
speed up reactions without being used up
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what are the advantages of catalysts
save money
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what are the disadvantages
different reactions need specific catalysts
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what happens when we increase the concentration/ surface area of a reaction
we increase the frequency of particles colliding and reacting
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when we increase the temperature what happenes
the particles move faster and therefore are more likely to collide and do so with sufficient energy to react
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catalysts do what
lower the activation energy
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for the reaction to take place what is needed
the minimum amount of energy needed,this is the activation energy
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the rate of reaction is increased by
temperature, concentration, surface area or using a catalyst
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how do you measurse the rate of reaction
by looking at how fast the reactants are used up, how quickly gas is produced and how quickly a solution becomes opaque
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giant covalent molecules properties are


high melting and boiling points, hard, strong covalent bonds

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Card 5


ionic bonding


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