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what is the earth made up of?
thin rocky crust, mantle and core
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what are tectonic plates?
parts of the lithosphere that have cracked into different several interlocking parts
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what are the two types of tectonic plates?
oceanic plates that sit underneath the oceans and continental plates that form the continents
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what can happen when plates move?
earthquakes and volcanoes
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what causes the plates to move?
a convection current in the hot fluid mantle
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what does the convection cause?
magma rises to the surface of the plate boundaries, when it cools new igneous rock forms making the plates move
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what happens if two plates collide?
an oceanic crust has a higher density than a continental crust so when the two collide the continental plate slips under- this is called subduction
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where do volcanoes form and why?
where magma can find it way through gaps in the earth's crust- at plate boundaries. this is because it has a lower density than the crust
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when lava cools, what forms?
igneous rock
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when igneous rock cools quickly what crystals are formed?
small crystals
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when igneous rock cools slowly what crystals are formed?
large crystals
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what are the two types of lava that volcanoes produce?
iron-rich basalt and silica-rich rhyolite
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how are iron and aluminium extracted from the earth?
through ores
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how are bricks made?
baking clay that has been extracted
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how are glass, concrete and cement made?
from sand
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what is limestone and marble made up of?
calcium carbonate
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what happens when this is heated?
it breaks down into two elements: calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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what reaction is this?
thermal decomposition
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how is cement made?
mixing limestone and clay together with heat
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how is concrete made?
mixing cement with sand, gravel and water to set as a hard substance
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what affects can mines and quarries have on local environments?
be noisy and dusty, take up land, change the shape of landscapes and increase local traffic
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how do you work out if electrolysis is oxidation or reduction?
OILRIG; Oxidation Is Loss (of electrons) Reduction Is Gain (of electrons)
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what is an alloy?
a mixture of a metal with another element
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what are alloys made for?
to make more useful metals and improve the properties
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when making cars, what is nylon fibre used for and why?
making seatbelts - strong and flexible
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what is glass used for and why?
windscreen and windows - transparent
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what is copper used for?
wiring in the engine - good electrical conductor
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what is plastic used for?
the trim - strong and doesn't corrode
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what is steel used for?
the body - strong and malleable
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what is aluminium used for?
alloy wheel - lightweight and doesn't corrode
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what reaction is rusting?
oxidation
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how is ammonia made?
reacting nitrogen and hydrogen
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what reaction is it?
a reversible reaction therefore the ammonia can decompose back into nitrogen and hydrogen
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what is the symbol equation for ammonia?
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
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what are the conditions to make ammonia?
high pressure of 200 atmospheres and an iron catalyst at 450*C
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what are the uses of ammonia?
used to make nitric acid and is in some fertillisers
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the cost of making a new substance depends on what?
the price of energy, labour costs, the time it takes, cost of new materials, cost of equipment
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factors that affect the cost of making a new substance are?
the pressure, temperature, catalysts used, number of people, amount of unreacted material
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what are some economic considerations?
the percentage yield, rate of reaction, optimum conditions
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what is yield?
the amount of product obtained
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what is an acid?
a substance with a pH lower than 7
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what colour does an acid turn with universal indicator?
red
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what is an alkali?
a substance with a pH higher than 7
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what colour does an alkali turn with universal indicator?
purple
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neutralisation turns acids or alkalis into neutral solutions, how?
by adding metal oxides and metal hydroxides (bases)
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what is the word equation for neutralisation?
acid + base = salt + water
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acids can also be neutralised with carbonates, what is the word equation for this?
acid + carbonate = salt + water + carbon dioxide
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how do you name salts?
the first name is the metal oxide used (sodium hydroxide - sodium), the second name is the acid used (hydrochloric acid -chloride) = sodium chloride
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what do fertilisers do?
make crops grow faster and bigger, increase crop yield
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what are the main elements in fertilisers?
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
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what is eutrophication?
fertilisers cause an increase in nutrients. this makes the aquatic plants to grow, blocking sunlight to other plants. because of this they die and rot, causing levels of oxygen to decrease - killing fish and other populations
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when sodium chloride solution is electrolysed, what is produced and where?
sodium hydroxide in the solution, hydrogen at the cathode, chlorine at the anode
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what are some uses of the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution?
sodium hydroxide is used to make soap, hydrogen is used in the production of margarine, chlorine is used to sterilise water and make plastics, chlorine and sodium hydroxide are reacted together to make household bleach
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brine contains Na+, Cl-, OH- and H+ ions. what is the equation for hydrogen at the cathode?
2H+ + 2e- = H2
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what is the equation for chlorine at the anode?
2Cl- - 2e- = Cl2
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what reaction is at the cathode and anode?
reduction at cathode, oxidation at anode
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are tectonic plates?

Back

parts of the lithosphere that have cracked into different several interlocking parts

Card 3

Front

what are the two types of tectonic plates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what can happen when plates move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what causes the plates to move?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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