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What/where is the lithosphere and what is it made up of?
The outer layer of the earth and made up of tectonic plates
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Name some properties of the lithosphere?
Relatively cold and rigid, less dense than the mantle below
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What are the disadvantages of the thickness of the crust?
The crust is too thick to drill through, so most of our information about the Earth is collected from seismic waves produced by earthquakes and man-made explosions
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What/where is the mantle?
the zone between the core and the crust
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Name the properties of the upper, and/or, lower mantle?
it is cold and rigid just below the crust but at greater depths it is hot, nonrigid and able to move
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why does the temperature of the mantle increase with depth?
the temperature of the earth increases with depth because the earths core transfers energy.
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why do tectonic plates move?
plates move slowly due to convection currents
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what causes mountains?
collisions of tectonic plates
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what are the two crusts and which is denser?
the oceanic crust is denser that continental
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what is the process of subduction?
due to the oceanic crust being denser than continental, when the plates collide the oceanic plate sinks pulling more of the plate down and as it reaches the hotter part of the mantle it partly melts.
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where is the oceanic plate coolest?
the margins
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what is the plate tectonic theory?
the theory that south america and Africa were once one land mass
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why do most scientists now accept the plate tectonic theory?
it explains a wide range of evidence and it has been discussed and tested by many scientists
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what/who's theory was not accepted in 1914?
Wegener's continental drift theory
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why was wegener's theory not accepted in 1914?
not enough evidence and people wanted to believe god created the world as it is today/keep the current theories
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why is it now widely accepted?
the two land masses look as if they could fit, the same fossils have been found on both sides, new seafloor spreading evidence was discovered in the 60's and subsequent research was evidence, it explains a wide range of evidence and has ben tested b
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what is the cause of volcanoes?
magma is less dense than the crust so rises through the earths crust causing volcanoes
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what cause different types of eruptions?
different composition of magma cause different types of erruptions
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why do geologists study volcanoes?
to forecast future eruptions and reveal more about the structure of the earth.
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how is igneous rock formed?
formed by lava/magma
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how is iron-rich basalt formed
comes from runny lava in slower volcanic erruptions
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how is silica-rich rhyolite rock formed?
comes from thick lava in explosive reactions
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what building material comes from clay?
brick
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what building material comes from limestone + clay?
cement
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what material comes from sand?
glass
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what building material comes from iron ore?
iron
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what building material comes from aluminium ore?
aluminium
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how is hardness compare?
by rubbing two materials together, the one that is scratched is softer than the other
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put limestone, granite and marble in order of hardness
granite, marble, limestone
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what type of rock is limestone and what is a property of this?
sedimentary - is soft
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how are sedimentary rocks formed?
made from soft sediments compressed and cemented together
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what type of rock is marble and what is a property of this?
metamorphic - harder than limestone as it has been baked
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how are metamorphic rocks formed?
formed when limestone changes due to heat and pressure
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what are metamorphic rocks composed of?
typically composed of an interlockingg mosaic of carbonate crystals
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what type of rock is granite and what is a property of this?
igneous - very hard due to it's interlocking crystals
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what is thermal decomposition?
when a substance is broken down when heated to give at least 2 new substances
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give the word equation of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate?
calcium carbonate -> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
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what is the symbol equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate?
CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2
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what is made when limestone is heated with clay?
cement
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what is concrete made up of?
mixing cement, sand nd small stones with water
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what is reinforced concrete?
it is a composite material which has steel rods or meshes running through it.
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what are composites?
tehy contain at least two materials that can still be distinguished
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what are properties of concrete in relation to strength?
strong under compression (squashing forces) but weak under tension (pulling force)
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what causes cracks in concrete?
when heavy loads are applied to a beam, the concrete will bend which creates tension and compression causing cracks
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why is reinforced concrete a better construction material
it is harder and more flexible
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name some properties of the lithosphere?

Back

Relatively cold and rigid, less dense than the mantle below

Card 3

Front

What are the disadvantages of the thickness of the crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What/where is the mantle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the properties of the upper, and/or, lower mantle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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