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Show how a magnesium atom become a magnesium ion.
Mg loses 2 electrons. Mg --> Mg^2+ + 2e-
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Show how a chlorine atom becomes a chlorine ion.
Cl gains 1 electron. Cl + e- --> Cl-
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Explain what is meant by ionic bonding.
Electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions.
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Explain what we mean by the term covalant bonding.
Non metal atoms sharing pairs of electrons.
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Describe the bonding in pure metals.
Positive ions in a sea of delocalised electrons.
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Identify 3 properties of metals:
Malleable ; Good conductors ; Strong
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Explain why simple covalant molecules have low melting and boiling points.
There are only weak intermolecular forces between molecules which are easily overcome.
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Explain why ionic compounds have such high melting points.
There are strong electrostatic forces between positive and negative ions.
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Can ionic compounds conduct electricity?
No, when solid. Yes, when molten or dissolved in water - as the ions are free to move and carry charge.
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Explain the properties of a diamond (giant covalant structure).
4 strong covalant bonds per carbon atom ; Very strong and high melting point.
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Explain the properties of graphite (giant covalant structure).
3 strong covalant bonds per carbon atom ; 1 delocalised electron ; Forms layers ; Can conduct electricity.
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What is a fullerene?
Formula = C60 ; Simple covalant molecule ; Low m.p and b.p
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What size are nanoparticles?
Very small (only 100s of atoms)
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Identify one advantage of nanoparticles.
Saves resources.
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Identify a disadvantage of nanoparticles.
May pass into body and be toxic.
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Explain why pure metals are malleable.
They have ordered rows of atoms which can easily slide over each other.
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Explain why pure metals are good conductors of electricity and heat.
They have delocalised electrons which carry charge and kinetic energy.
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Explain why alloys are harder than pure metals.
Different sized atoms distort the regular rows, meaning that the layers cannot slide other as easily.
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What do we mean by the term smart alloy?
Alloys that change the properties in different conditions - e.g. nitinol.
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Explain why thermosoftening polymers have a low melting point.
Thermosoftening polymers have cross links between chains, which keeps the structure rigid (with high m.p)
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What two calculations can be used to work out the rate of reaction?
Rate = products formed/time taken ; Rate = reactants used up/time taken.
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Explain how the temperature affects the rate of a chemical reaction.
As the temperature increases, the (kinetic) energy of the particles increases, so there are more frequent successful collisions - RATE INCREASES.
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Explain how a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction.
The catalyst lowers the activation energy of a reaction, so there are more frequent successful collisions - RATE INCREASES.
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Explain how the concentration affects the rate of a chemical reaction.
As the concentration increases, there are more particles in the same volume, so there are more frequent successful collisions - RATE INCREASES.
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Explain how the surface area affects the rate of a chemical reaction.
As the surface area increases, there are more reactant particles exposed, so there are more frequent successful collisions - RATE INCREASES.
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Explain what an exothermic reaction is.
A reaction that releases heat energy to the surroundings. (i.e. thermometer increases).
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Identify examples of exothermic reactions.
Combustion ; Respiration ; Neutralisation
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Explain what an endothermic reaction is.
A reaction that absorbs heat energy from the surroundings. (i.e. thermometer decreases).
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Identify examples of endothermic reactions.
Thermal decomposition ; Photosynthesis ; Baking
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What is meant by the term 'reversible reaction'?
A reaction in which the reactants react to form products - but then the products can also react to form the original reactants.
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Describe an everyday use of exothermic reactions.
Combustion - to heat homes and power vehicles ; Hand warmers
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Describe an everyday use of endothermic reactions.
Sports injury packs - get cold when pack is 'snapped'.
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Explain what the pH scale shows.
It shows how acidic or alkaline a solution is.
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How can you tell when a neutralisation reaction has finished?
Use an indicator (it will change colour to show neutralisation).
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Identify an acid and alkali that will react and form Magnesium Chloride.
Acid = hydrochloric acid ; Alkali = magnesium oxide
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Identify an acid and alkali that will react and form Sodium Sulfate.
Acid = sulfuric acid ; Alkali = sodium hydroxide
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Identify an acid and alkali that will react and form Lead Nitrate.
Acid = nitric acid ; Alkali = lead carbonate
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What does reduction mean?
Gain of electrons.
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What does oxidation mean?
Loss of electrons.
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Explain the rule for whether the metal or hydrogen will form at the negative electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution.
The less reactive substance will form at the negative electrode.
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What is electroplating?
Using electrolysis to coat a object in a thin layer of a expensive metal.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Show how a chlorine atom becomes a chlorine ion.

Back

Cl gains 1 electron. Cl + e- --> Cl-

Card 3

Front

Explain what is meant by ionic bonding.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain what we mean by the term covalant bonding.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the bonding in pure metals.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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