C1g: Smells

Cosmetics play an important part in the life of teenagers. This item considers some cosmetic products: perfumes and nail varnish remover. The properties of these products and the need for testing new cosmetic products are considered. This item provides the opportunity to explore how and why decisions about science and technology are made, including ethical issues on the testing of cosmetics on animals. The investigation on nail varnish removal provides the opportunity to collect and analyse primary scientific data, working accurately and safely. 

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What are cosmetics depending on their source?
Synthetic or Natural.
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Complete the sentence: ______ are perfumes that can be made _________.
Esters are perfumes that can be made synthetically.
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Name five necessary properties of perfumes.
Non-toxic, evaporates easily, doesn't react with water, doesn't irritate the skin and insoluble in water.
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What does nail varnish remover dissolve?
Nail varnish colours.
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What is a solvent?
A solvent is a liquid that dissolves substances.
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What is a solute?
The substance that dissolves is called the solute.
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What is a solution?
the mixture formed by a solvent and solute that doesn't separate out is called a solution.
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What does soluble mean?
Substances that can dissolve in a particular solvent are soluble.
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What does insoluble mean?
Substances that cannot dissolve in a particular solvent are insoluble.
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Testing cosmetics on what is illegal in the UK?
Animals.
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Why do new cosmetic products need to be thoroughly tested before they are permitted to be used?
To make sure they are safe to use.
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What alcohols and acids react, what do they produce?
Esters and water.
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Explain the simple experiment to make an ester.
made in the laboratory by reacting an alcohol with an organic acid. A little sulfuric acid is needed as a catalyst.
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Why does a perfume need to evaporate easily?
so that the perfume particles can easily reach the nose.
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Why does a perfume need to be non-toxic?
So it doesn't poison the wearer.
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Why does a perfume need to not react with water?
if the perfume did react with water it would react with perspiration. (sweat)
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Why does a perfume need to be non-irritant?
if the perfume was irritant it wouldn't be able to put directly onto the skin.
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Why does a perfume need to be insoluble in water?
so it can't be washed off easily
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What is volatility?
Ease of evaporation
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What do volatile liquids do?
Evaporate easily - they redly change between a liquid and gas.
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Why do volatile liquids evaporate easily?
because there are only weak attractive forces between particles in the substance. These forces are overcome easily, so particles with enough energy can escape from the liquid.
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What do particles need in order to evaporate?
Sufficient energy to overcome the attraction to other molecules in the liquid.
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What can esters be used as? (other than perfumes)
Solvents
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Why doesn't water (W) dissolve nail varnish (NV) colours?
The attraction between W&NV particles is weaker than the attraction that joins W to W&the attraction that joins NV to NV. The attractive force between W&NV is too weak to break those other bonds, so NV will not dissolve in W.
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Why has testing of cosmetics been made illegal in the EU?
Because of concerns on animal welfare.
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Why do people have different opinions about whether the testing of cosmetics on animals is ever justified?
Some think its worth checking on animals first to check they won't damage humans - others claim that its wrong to cause suffering to animals just to test the safety of a cosmetic - especially when the results may be non-conclusive.
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Whether a substance dissolves in a particular solution depends on what?
The relative strengths of the attractive forces between: the solute particles, the solvent particles, between the solute and solvent particles
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Complete the sentence: ______ are perfumes that can be made _________.

Back

Esters are perfumes that can be made synthetically.

Card 3

Front

Name five necessary properties of perfumes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does nail varnish remover dissolve?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a solvent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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